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High School and College Entrance Examinations

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11. (UFMG) "Restored to the captains of Pernambuco to the dominion of His Majesty, already free from the enemies who came to conquer them, being powerful our weapons to shake the enemy, which so many years oppressed us, were never able to destroy the on the contrary, that it has infested us from within, and their harm is no less than their hostility. " ("List of wars made to the Palmares of Pernambuco during the time of Governor D. Pedro de Almeida, from 1675 to 1678", quoted by CARNEIRO, Edson. Quilombo dos Palmares. 2.ed. São Paulo: CEN, Col. Brasiliana, 1958 v. 302.) The text makes reference both to the Dutch invasions ("… of the enemies that came from abroad to conquer them") and to the Quilombo of Palmares ("... the opposite, which infested us from the gates"). Palmares, the core of slave rebellion in northeastern Brazil, achieved considerable growth during the Dutch occupation period in Pernambuco, and even after the expulsion of foreign invaders by the local population, the quilombo resisted numerous attacks by government troops.

a) Give a reason for the Dutch occupation of northeastern Brazil.
b) Explain, based on one argument, the long duration of Palmares.

12. (UEL-PR) In colonial Brazil, livestock played a decisive role in:

a) occupation of coastal areas
b) expulsion of the employee from the field
c) formation and operation of smallholdings
d) slave settlement in agriculture
e) inward expansion

13. (Cesgranrio-RJ) The occupation of Brazilian territory, restricted in the 16th century to the coast and associated with the cultivation of tropical products, extended to the interior during the 17th and 18th centuries, linked to the exploration of new economic activities and the Portugal's political interests in defining the boundaries of the colony. The statements below relate the occupied regions from the 17th century and their dominant activities. 1) In the Amazon valley, plant extractivism - drugs from the wild - and the capture of Indians attracted the colonizers. 2) The occupation of the Pampa Gaucho had no economic interest, being linked to the Portuguese-Spanish conflicts in Europe. 3) The central plateau, in the areas corresponding to the current states of Minas Gerais, Goiás and Mato Grosso, was one of the main targets of flagging, and its occupation is linked to mining. 4) The missionary zone in southern Brazil was an obstacle to both the colonists, interested in the enslavement of the indigenous, and to Portugal, making it difficult to demarcate the borders. 5) The Northeastern Sertão, the first interior area occupied in the colonization process, was an extension of the sugarcane crop, providing new land and labor for the expansion of the crop. The correct statements are:

a) only 1, 2 and 4.
b) only 1, 2 and 5.
c) only 1, 3 and 4.
d) only 2, 3 and 4.
e) only 2, 3 and 5.

14. (Unicamp-SP) The slave in Brazil is generally represented as docile, dominated by force and submissive to you. However, many historians show the importance of slave resistance to masters and the fear they felt in the face of quilombos, insurrections, revolts, attacks and slave escapes.

a) Describe what the quilombos were.
b) Why did the Portuguese metropolis and the masters fight the quilombos, the revolts, the attacks and the slave escapes in the Brazilian colonial period?

15. (Cesgranrio-RJ) The expansion of Portuguese colonization in America, from the second half of the eighteenth century, was marked by a set of measures, among which we can mention:

a) the effort to expand colonial trade by suppressing mercantilist practices.
b) the installation of indigenous missions at the southern and western borders to guarantee the possession of the territories by Portugal.
c) Paulista flagmanism, which destroyed part of the Jesuit missions and discovered the mining areas of the central plateau.
d) the expansion of sugarcane inland, encouraged by higher prices in the international market.
e) political alliances and the opening of colonial trade to the English to contain Spanish expansionism.

16. (Fuvest-SP) We can say about the mining period in Brazil that:

a) attracted by gold, came to Brazil adventurers of all kinds who made mining impossible.
b) The exploitation of gold mines has only brought benefits to Portugal.
c) mining gave rise to an urban middle class that played a decisive role in Brazil's independence.
d) gold benefited only England, which funded its exploitation.
e) mining contributed to interconnect the various regions of Brazil and was a factor of differentiation of society.

17. (UFMG) In 1703, Portugal signed with England the Methuen treaty. The signing of this treaty had profound implications for the Portuguese and English economies.

a) Present the situation in which Portugal was at the time of the signing of the treaty.
b) Name the main clause of the Methuen treaty.
c) Present 2 (two) fundamental implications of this treaty for the Portuguese economy.
d) Present the fundamental implication of this treaty for the English economy.

18… (UFMG) Read the text. It refers to the captaincy of Minas Gerais in the eighteenth century. "… Considering that the villages of this Captaincy are as numerous today as they are, and that being a large part of the families of their clean-born dwellers, it was only fair that only those who have this quality should walk in their governance, For if the lack of capable persons has at first made it necessary to tolerate the mulattoes to the exercise of those offices, today that this reason has ceased, it is unseemly that they should be occupied by persons with such a defect… "(D. João , Lisbon, 27 January 1726.) In the passage of this letter, the king of Portugal refers to the impropriety of the mulattoes continuing to hold the office of:

a) governor, magistrate chosen from the "good men" of the colony to administer the captaincy.
b) minemaster, minister responsible for controlling the flow of food and trade.
c) Ombudsman, official responsible for the administration of finance and ecclesiastical goods.
d) Councilman, member of the Senate of the House, in charge of taking care of the local administration.

19. (PUC-SP) "I the Queen make known: That due to the large number of factories and manufactures, which for some years has been spreading in different captaincies of Brazil, with serious damage to the culture and the farming and the exploitation of the lands because there is a lack of population it is evident that the more the number of manufacturers is multiplied, the more the number of cultivators will decrease and the fewer arms there will be… I have to order all the factories and manufactures… (except those that weave cotton farms) are extinct and abolished in any part of my domain in Brazil. " (Permit of 5/1/1785.) At the end of the 18th century, the restrictions and prohibitions imposed by the Portuguese metropolis on the development of economic activities in the colony expanded. The text reproduced above, downloaded by D. Maria I, Queen of Portugal, contains aspects of this policy of restrictions. Read the text carefully and below:

(a) identify the central constraint imposed on it;
b) highlight and comment on an argument used in the text to justify such a measure.

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