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Alexios I Comneno, Byzantine emperor, sends an embassy to Pope Urban II to ask for his help.
Pope Urban II begins his trip to France.
1095, November 18.
Clermont Council opens.
1095, 26 November.
Urban II launches its appeal to the Crusade.
Departure from the popular Crusade directed by Peter the Hermit and Gautier Sans Avoir. Jewish massacres in Rhineland.
1096, July 6th.
Council of Nimes: Urban II entrusts Raimundo de Saint-Gilles with the command of one of the expeditions to the Holy Land.
1096, August 1st
The popular Crusade comes to Constantinople.
Departure of the Baron's Crusade (Godfred of Bulhão; Raymond IV Count of Toulouse; Bohemond of Tarentum; Stephen Count of Blois; Tancredo de Hauteville and Roberto II Count of Flanders). The German Emperor, Henry IV, and the King of France, Philip I, being excommunicated, could not lead the Crusade.
1096, October 21.
Turkish and Bulgarian troops from the Sultan of Nicaea Kilij Arslan annihilate the popular Crusade in Anatolia. Peter the Hermit escapes the massacre and flees to Constantinople.
1096, December 23
Arrival of Godfred of Bulhão to Constantinople. The Emperor of Byzantium demands, and obtains, after many refusals, the promise of restitution of the lands and cities taken back to the Muslims, and the acceptance of his suzerainty over the new conquests.
1097, end of April.
The army of the barons leaves Constantinople to Asia Minor.
Shooting falls into the hands of the Fatimids of Egypt.
Taking of Nicaea by the Crusaders, returned to Byzantium.
1097, July 1st.
Clear victory against the Turkish sultan of Iconium (Konya) in Dorileia.
1097, September 13.
The Crusaders divide the army into two forces in Heracleia.
1097, October 20.
Arrival of the Crusaders to Antioch, and beginning of the siege.
1097, November 15.
Bologna's Baldwin leaves the Crusader camp and takes over from Edessa due to the Armenian prince's request for support.
The Byzantines abandon the siege of Antioch. Baldwin arrives at Edessa.
Baldwin of Bologna proclaims himself Prince of Edessa, after the death of Thoros, the Armenian prince, who had asked for his help and adopted him. Thus founds the first Latin State of the East.
1098, June 3.
Taking of Antioch by the Crusaders. Bohemond I of Tarentum, chief of the Normans of southern Italy, refuses to return it to the Byzantines and proclaims himself Prince of Antioch.
1098, June 4.
The Crusaders are surrounded in Antioch by a relief army, commanded by Kerbogha, sent by the Seljuk Sultanate of Persia.
1098, June 14th.
Peter Bartholomew discovers the Holy Spear under the flagstones of an Antioch church.
1098, June 28th.
Antioch crusaders defeat the besieging Muslim forces.
1098, 26 August.
The Fatimids occupy Jerusalem.
The crusaders seized Maarat An Noman in Syria. The population is massacred and the city destroyed.
1099, January 13th.
The Franks resume their march to Jerusalem.
1099, February 2.
The army passes through Qal'at-al-Hosn, the future Knights Krak.
1099, June 7th.
The Frankish army arrives in Jerusalem.
1099, June 13th.
First assault on the city, without any prior preparation, which fails.
1099, July 10th.
Assault on Jerusalem. The surrounding wall is crossed.
1099, July 15th.
Conquest of Jerusalem by the Crusaders. Massacre of the Muslim and Jewish population.
1099, August 12th.
The Franks defeat the Egyptians at Ascalon, on the Mediterranean coast north of Gaza.
1099, July 22.
Elected king of Jerusalem by the barons, Godofredo de Bulhão only accepts the title of defender of the Holy Sepulcher.
1099, August 1st.
Arnoul Malecorne, Patriarch of Jerusalem. It is replaced on 31 December by Daimbert, bishop of Pisa, the Pope's legacy.
Trade agreement between Venice and the Free Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1100, July 18th.
Death of Godfred Bulhão. Baldwin of Bologna, brother of Godfred, prince of Edessa, is crowned first king of Jerusalem in Bethlehem on December 25.
Relief crusades. Lombardy crusade led by the Archbishop of Milan, Anselmo du Buis, Raimundo de Saint-Gilles, Stephen-Henry, Count of Blois, Stephen, Count of Burgundy and the first officer of the Holy Sepulcher, Conrado. Nevers and Aquitaine Crusades. None of them can cross Asia Minor and are successively beaten by a coalition of the different Turkish potentates of Anatolia.
Tancredo de Hauteville, one of the leaders of the first Crusade, leaves Jerusalem returning to the West through Antioch.
1101, May 17th.
The Franks take Caesarea.
Raimundo de Saint-Gilles takes Tortosa.
Balduino Victory at Ramla.
Beginning of the siege of Tripoli by the Franks.
1104, 7 May.
Defeat of the Franks in Harran: Balduino du Bourg is taken prisoner. Stop of the advance of the Crusade in Mesopotamia, which was heading for Mossoul on the Tigris River.
1104, 26 May.
The Crusaders take Acre with the help of a Genoese squadron.
1105, February 28th.
Raimundo de Saint-Gilles dies at Mont-Pèlerin during the siege of Tripoli. It is succeeded by Bertrand de Saint-Gilles.
The Assassins redoubled their activity.
Conflict between Tancredo and Balduino du Bourg over the restitution of Antioch to the latter.
Tripoli falls into the hands of the Franks. Count Bertrand finally conquers the city he owns.
Conquest of the White Castle (Safita) and the Knights' Krak.
Mawdud, the orthoid emir of Mosul, attacks the Franks, and massacres Edessa's population as they head to the western bank of the Euphrates River.
Pope Pascal II's Bull officially recognizing the order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem.
Conquest by the Franks of the castle of Shawbak (Montréal), south of the Dead Sea.
Death of the emperor Alexios Comneno; his daughter Ana begins the writing of the Alexiad.
Death of Baldwin I; succeeds Balduino du Bourg.
Battle of Ager sanguinis (from the blood field). Diyarbakir's emir el Ghazi annihilates the Frankish army of Antioch near Atareb.
Nine Western Knights found in Jerusalem the Militia of the Poor Knights of Christ (Future Order of the Temple).
1123, May 29.
The Egyptians are defeated at Ibelin by the king's first officer, Eustatius Garnier, regent of the kingdom during the captivity of Baldwin II.
1124, July 7th.
Shot taken by the Crusaders.
Council of Troyes: The Order of the Temple is officially recognized by Pope Honorius III.
1129, June 18.
Zinki settles in Aleppo; appeals to Jihad against the Franks.
1131, September 14.
Death of Baldwin II; Foulques V of Anjou, king of Jerusalem.
The St. John's Hospital in Jerusalem becomes a military order.
The Knights' Krakow is given to the St. John's Hospitallers.
1143, 25 December.
Zinki, atabaque of Aleppo and Mosul, takes Edessa.