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THE Industrial Revolution it was a set of changes that happened in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The main feature of this revolution was the replacement of artisanal work by wage labor and the use of machines.
Until the late eighteenth century most of the European population lived in the countryside and produced what they consumed. In artisanal way the producer dominated the whole production process.
Although production was predominantly artisanal, countries such as France and England had manufactures. At manufactures They were large workshops where various artisans performed the tasks manually, but subordinated to the owner of the manufacture.
England was a forerunner in the Industrial Revolution due to a number of factors, including a rich bourgeoisie, the fact that it had the most important free trade zone in Europe, the rural exodus and a privileged location by the sea which facilitated exploitation. from overseas markets.
As many businessmen wanted to earn more, the worker was exploited by being forced to work up to 15 hours a day in exchange for a low wage. In addition, women and children were also required to work to support their families.
As a result, some workers revolted at the poor working conditions offered and began sabotaging the machines, becoming known as “the machine breakers“. Other movements also emerged at this time to defend the worker.
The worker due to this process lost the knowledge of all the manufacturing technique and started to perform only one step.
Between 1760 and 1860, the Industrial Revolution was limited primarily to England. There was the emergence of cotton fabric industries with the use of mechanical loom. At that time the improvement of steam engines contributed to the continuation of the Revolution.
The second stage took place from 1860 to 1900, unlike the first stage, countries like Germany, France, Russia and Italy also industrialized. The use of steel, the use of electricity and petroleum fuels, the invention of the explosion engine, the steam locomotive and the development of chemicals were the main innovations of this period.
Some historians have regarded the technological advances of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries as the third stage of the Industrial Revolution. The computer, the fax, the genetic engineering, the cell phone would be some of the innovations of this era.