The story

Pau Castle

Pau Castle

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The 12th century Château de Pau is a castle in the centre of the city of Pau, the capital of Pyrénées-Atlantiques.

Pau Castle was founded in the Middle Ages. In the 12th century Gaston IV of Béarn built three towers at the fortress called Mazères, Billère and Montauser.

Henry IV of France and Navarre was born here in 1553 and it was once used by Napoleon as a holiday home during his period of power.

The château has been classified as a monument historique since 1840 by the French Ministry of Culture. Nowadays it contains a collection of tapestries.

During the Renaissance the court of Navarre in 1512 significantly altered the appearance of the castle. Originally a fortress, it became a residence. Henri d’Albret lived there with his wife Marguerite d’Angoulême, sister of François I, They marked the castle with their initials, still present on the walls and ceilings, and great care was taken to maintain and reproduce them even over the subsequent restorations.

The castle became a presidential residence during the Republic. It is currently a National Museum which houses the works preserved from the days of Henry IV. It currently hosts over 100,000 visitors annually, making it the most visited heritage site in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques.

The White Castle Story: The Birth Of Fast Food & The Burger Revolution

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The White Castle Story: The Birth Of Fast Food & The Burger Revolution

Back in 1921, when Edgar Waldo “Billy” Ingram and Walter Anderson imagined what their legacy would ultimately be, they probably didn’t believe that the country’s first fast food burger chain would become the subject of a movie about two pot-smoking pals caught up in a raunchy quest for a sack of small, square White Castle burgers.

White Castle may have survived in the fast food industry for nearly 100 years, but the nation’s original burger chain was never even supposed to be. In fact, co-founder Billy Ingram – whose family still manages the company – had planned to work in the insurance business. That is until he met the operator of three hamburger stands in Wichita, KS, in the early 1900s.

After the chance meeting with Walter Anderson, plans changed for Billy Ingram, and along the way, he and Anderson forever changed how Americans eat out.

Pau Castle - History

The municipality of Pau borders with the municipality of Vilajuïga to the northwest, with the one of Port de la Selva to the northeast, with the one of Palau-Saverdera to the east, with the one of Castelló d’Empúries to the south, with the of Peralada by the southwest and with the one of Pedret and Marzà by the west.

The municipality of Pau extends along the southern slopes of the Sierra de Rodes, in contact with the alluvial plain of the Muga basin, near the disappeared lake of Castellón, within the Aiguamolls de l’Empordà.

The village is an area of ​​contact between mountains and plains, with a history dating back to 982, when the old castle of Pau became the center of the barony of Pau. The whole town is grouped around the church and the square, and stretches along the paths that lead to it. The houses, many of them two-storey and with attics or barns at the top, covered cellars with stone or brick vaults on the ground floor and terraces attached to the facades on semicircular arches, make up a set of great interest.

Others have been converted into second homes, as well as new constructions around the two urbanizations of the town: the Els Olivars Urbanization and the La Vinya Urbanization.

Transition to Smooth Jazz

After a period of time in which Paul had mostly focused his efforts into television soundtracks and remixed work, Paul began to focus on releasing smooth jazz.

His first release of the new millenium was Hardcastle III, which included a remake of his hit song ‘Rain Forest’ and another massive song “Desire”. Over the next few years, Paul released a number of albums under several pseuodonyms, ‘Kiss The Sky’ and the ‘Jazzmasters’, as well as releasing several projects under his own name. Working with arists such as Helen Rogers, Becki Biggins, Margo LeDuc. Gary Barnacle, Snake Davis, Phil Todd, Tony Woods and Rock Hendricks. All of these albums have achieved massive success in the Smooth Jazz charts, especially in the United States. The most popular tracks ‘Northern Lights’, ‘Lost in Space’, ‘Desire’, ‘Shine’ and ‘Serene’ led to him winning the illustrious Billboard Smooth Jazz Artist of the Year Award in 2008.

In 2010, The Jazzmasters VI track ‘Touch and Go’, featuring his son Paul Jr. on saxophone, reached No. 1 on the U.S. Billboard Jazz songs chart, becoming his tenth number one on the Smooth Jazz chart in total.

In 2011, 󈧗’ unexpectedly re-entered the charts after a 26 year absence when Manchester United fans banded together to try and get the single to number 1 to celebrate their 19th English First Division Title. Hardcastle, a lifelong Chelsea fan, donated all of the income from this unexpected chart success to Scotty’s Little Soldiers, a Norwich-based charity which supports the children of men and women killed while serving with the British armed forces. Later that year, his album Hardcastle VI was another massive success with popular track ‘Rain Forest’ this time mixed with R&B legend Marvin Gaye’s signature song, ‘What’s Going On’.

Neumann'S HIstory

The year is 1887 and Grover Cleveland is the President of the United States. The Wisconsin Central Railway has just extended its rails all the way to a little settlement called Castle, Minnesota. With the arrival of railway, Castle suddenly needs a saloon.

Castle would soon change its name to North St. Paul, but that little saloon is still called Neumann's. We've been open ever since.

When the Eighteenth Amendment banned the consumption of alcohol, Neumann's found itself in a quandary. Fortunately, Neumann's quickly solved that problem. In 1920, Neumann's began to sell near beer in the main bar, bait to local fisherman out of the basement, and with an attitude of "let the do-gooders be damned," Neumann's opened a speakeasy upstairs.

As you enter Neumann's today, the staircase that leads to the speakeasy is behind the door directly to your left. If you get the chance, head up the stairs and check out the keyhole window that ensured only "welcomed" guests could enter the speakeasy.

While you're up there, check out the phone on the wall. This phone connected to another installed behind the main bar downstairs. This systems allowed the bartender in the main bar to readily alert revelers upstairs anytime Elliot Ness and his Band of Untouchables came sniffing around.

In about 1930 or so, to the best of anyone's memory, Jim Neumann added what would become Neumann's signature trademark to the saloon - the frogs. With a small pond built into the front window vestibule, Neumann's frogs fascinated visitors young and old. Children soon began to accompanying their fathers in on Saturdays, bringing with them a few tasty worms to feed to the frogs.

It's a tradition that still holds, all these years later. If you're lucky enough to be here at feeding time, it's a happy sight you won't soon forget.

Today, Neumann's carries forward its tradition of welcoming the hardworking and the hungry and thirsty. From bikers to bankers, ball teams to bridal parties, people from all walks of life come to Neumann's to kick back and relax in a one-of-a-kind charming and historic atmosphere.

And while Neumann's may be the oldest bar in the state of Minnesota, it's more than a bar. Neumann's is a friendly community where everyone is welcome.

We're loyal to our roots and we still serve Hamm's icy and fresh from the tap. So please stop in, enjoy yourself and be part of Neumann's history. Just like folks have been doing for over 130 years!

A brief history of St. Paul ice palaces

The majority of St. Paul’s historical ice palaces were not actual physical buildings, but more like icy structures best viewed from a relative distance.

After much budgetary and climatic drama, a St. Paul ice palace rises again. With the annual Winter Carnival open now, the icy structure stands ready to showcase the winter-loving spirit that sometimes thrives in the hearts of urban Minnesotans.

To me, the palace is a delightful sight because, though St. Paul ice palaces have been around for over a century, it was always in an intermittent way. Their mercurial nature gives them an untethered place within civic memory.

My personal sense of ice palaces comes from a mishmash of childhood memories. For example, as a child I always imagined that ice palaces ought to look like Lego castles, of which I also had quite a few. I wanted the city’s palaces to bear typical castlelike features: walls, towers, battlements, staircases, arrow slits, and, ideally, a structural keep with something akin to floors and ceilings.

Another ice palace archetype comes from F. Scott Fitzgerald’s 1920 short story, “The Ice Palace,” which I read in my early teenage years, receiving a thin volume of Fitzgerald stories for Christmas. The story isn’t a great work of fiction, but does feature a rare literary depiction of a St. Paul ice palace, which, in the tale, serves as a blunt metaphor for Midwestern inhospitality.

Here’s Fitzgerald’s description:

After another ten minutes they turned a corner and came in sight of their destination. On a tall hill outlined in vivid glaring green against the wintry sky stood the ice palace. It was three stories in the air, with battlements and embrasures and narrow icicled windows, and the innumerable electric lights inside made a gorgeous transparency of the great central hall. Sally Carrol clutched Harry’s hand under the fur robe.

“It’s beautiful!” he cried excitedly. “My golly, it’s beautiful, isn’t it! They haven’t had one here since eighty-five!”

Somehow the notion of there not having been one since eighty-five oppressed her. Ice was a ghost, and this mansion of it was surely peopled by those shades of the eighties, with pale faces and blurred snow-filled hair.

The denouement comes a bit later, when the main character, a young bride named Sally Carrol, gets lost and trapped inside the labyrinthine palace. It does not end well for her, and she retreats from the mysteries of the carnival to the balmy South, defeated by the fundamental coldness of Minnesotan culture.

Ice palace taxonomy

“Fitzgerald was referring to the 1888 ice palace,” Bob Olsen, the unofficial Winter Carnival Ice Palace historian, explained to me. “It had a labyrinth in it, and people could go into it and up onto internal stairways.”

(Note that Fitzgerald was not born until 1896, so had taken some liberties with his palace timelines.)

According to Olsen, the experience of actually entering an ice palace was a Carnival rarity. The majority of ice palaces were not actual physical buildings, but more like icy structures best viewed from a relative distance. One of the key reasons for the caution is that ice is a slippery structural medium, unlike bricks or concrete — what Olsen calls a “capricious material.”

“Ice is definitely a stone under 32 degrees,” Olsen explained. “But unlike most other rocks, as you load the blocks and stack it up, the compression stretches the ice. Rather than breaking the ice at the bottom, it tends to do a wedding cake-type squish. It’s called ‘creep,’ and it’s a very unique ice feature that needs to be considered in engineering.”

In addition to ice creep, an ice palace engineer’s other great concern is the weather. Not only do warm days cause problems with melting, but the sun can cause ice to decay internally, and wind can blow out the mortar between the ice blocks. All this makes for a great deal of mental and physical stress, and so many previously planned palaces were never built due to weather. A list of aborted palace attempts includes the never-built palaces of 1889, 1938, 1947, and others.

In the past, the unusual qualities of ice construction led Carnival architects to get creative about stability. For example, St. Paul’s African-American municipal architect, Clarence Wigington, designed four palaces during the 󈧬s, using design tricks involving lots of corners, to increase stability.

“[Wigington’s] undulating walls fit the zigzag modern he was working through stylistically at that point,” Olsen explained. “That was a direct ‘form follows function’ feature, a big façade where you build it up tall and give it strength.”

Likewise, according to Olsen, to construct the famous centennial 1986 ice palace by Lake Phalen, the builders employed a brilliant engineer, a Russian immigrant, who single-handedly calculated the structural properties of ice construction using military specifications.

Demolition of 1986 Ice Palace at the St. Paul Winter Carnival

The two other key features of Carnival palaces were that many of them served not as buildings, but primarily as walls. For example, the 1916 palace was little more than a large ice rink enclosure for a then-famous figure skating star. And the 1896 palace was primarily a massive wall enclosing a 600-foot toboggan run.

St. Paul’s ice palaces have also varied a great deal in size and mass. At the large end, you had the record-breaking (and Carnival bankrupting) 1992 ice palace of 20,000 massive ice blocks stacked 166 feet high, and the only slightly smaller 1986 palace. In many other years, the “palaces” were more like throne rooms. The 1949 ice palace consisted of just a couple hundred blocks that formed a stage in a vacant lot downtown, and the most recent attempt was the similarly diminutive Rice Park “ice wall” in 2011.

How does the 2018 palace stack up?

Despite all of its funding and climactic hurdles, the size and scope of this year’s ice palace falls squarely in the middle register of Carnival battlements.

“This palace is really a modern iconic interpretation of past palaces,” explained John Culligan, who designed this year’s palace for The Cuningham Group. “It is more of a modern reflection of a palace. It has the towers, the slotted windows, some corbeling like on the tops of palaces, but it’s done in a clean and modern way this time.”

Undeniably, with this year’s palace and the sprawling 2004 building, there’s been a turn toward ice modernism. Traditional details like corbels, merlons, tourelles, and parapets have tended to vanish in favor of clean lines and edges. No doubt this is due both to fashion and logistical constraints, but the last few palaces have been more gestural than structural.

According to Culligan, this year’s design centers on six towers arranged in an L-shape to frame a pair of ice thrones, for the Palace royalty. Following Carnival protocol, the towers will represent the king and queen along with the four princes of the various ordinal winds.

The other key facet of ice palace design revolves around lighting and transparency. It’s hardly a new phenomenon – after all, the 1886 ice palace was one of the first “buildings” in the city to receive electric lights – but most palaces have to walk a fine line between the opaque and the transparent.

“You have to take into consideration what it looks like in the daytime and at night,” explained Bob Olsen, who himself designed the 1975 palace. “The nighttime is the more interesting, with the lighting. In the daytime you have to figure out how to make a building interesting without shade and shadow.”

The need for dramatic nighttime palace lighting leads to many other facets of ice palace architecture, such as more transparent ice blocks, or the need for thin walls.

For people like me, people who still dream of losing themselves in a maze of icy walls, this year’s tower-centric construction might be disappointing. But given the increasing difficulties of ice construction in an age of climate change, this year’s palace looks wonderful.

“The people will be able to get within 10 to 15 feet of place, but general public won’t be allowed in the palace,” architect Culligan said.

“But enjoy it, because they don’t come around very often,” he added. “The ice always melts, but memories of ice palaces are frozen in time.”

History of the Castle

This is a brief chronological sequence of significant events in the history of Castle Cornet, from its thirteenth century origins to the present day.

The earliest parts of Castle Cornet date to the 13th century.

In 1066 when William Duke of Normandy became William I, King of England, the Channel Islands became possessions of the English Crown. In 1204, King John lost control of Normandy but the Islands remained in the possession of the English Crown. As a result there was the need to defend the Channel Islands against the French. The construction of Castle Cornet commenced shortly after this date.

Castle Cornet was built on a small island off the coast of Guernsey, to defend the busy trading harbour of St Peter Port. It had a strong natural position, surrounded by the sea and only accessible on foot at the lowest tides. Before the enlargement of the harbour and the building of the Castle Emplacement Castle Cornet was nearly a mile off the shore of Guernsey.

In September 1338 the French attacked and took Castle Cornet. They held it for 7 years.

Castle cornet was recaptured by the English. The Castle was severely damaged during these conflicts and a significant amount of rebuilding had to take place.

Gunners Tower was constructed. It was the first tower built to take canon.

16th Century

In the 16th century cannon became increasingly available and were more readily used as a means of attack and defence. New fortifications were required to not only take cannon but also defend against them.

During the reigns of Henry VIII (1509-1547) and Elizabeth I (1558-1603) successive island governors supervised the building of new outer walls and fortifications around the medieval fortress creating the basic outline of the Castle still seen today. Paul Ivy, the foremost military engineer during this period designed the Tudor extensions to the Castle. Incorporating artillery around the castle walls provided substantial protection. The earliest of these extensions was the Mewtis Bulwark built in 1550. It was named after Sir Peter Mewtis, the governor of Guernsey at the time.

A Commission under Sir Francis Chamberlayne, the then Governor of Guernsey, reported that the Castle needed repair and updating as artillery had continued to advance and most of the fortifications at Castle Cornet were considered obsolete. Sir Francis did make one improvement before he left office in 1570 - the construction of Chamberlayne's Mount on the west side of the citadel.

1570 - 1609

Other proposals made by the Commission of 1567 were carried out in a modified form by Sir Thomas Leighton (Governor of Guernsey 1570-1609). Most of the outer walls and great bastions or bulwarks now called the Town Bastion and Royal Battery were constructed during this time, as was the Castle Gate and the Hart Bulwark.

1642 - 1651

At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642 Guernsey declared for Parliament, Castle Cornet, under the Governor Sir Peter Osborne, remained loyal to King Charles I. The Castle was under siege throughout this period. There were regular skirmishes with both the Castle and St Peter Port suffering damage from each others guns. Castle Cornet was the last Royalist stronghold to surrender in 1651.

After the Restoration of 1660 the Castle was fully maintained as a fortress.

1661 - 1670

Major-General Sir John Lambert was held prisoner in the Castle. Charles II banished his opponents and Lambert was sent to Guernsey. He was a keen gardener and while in the Castle he was allowed to devote his time to horticultural interests. A garden within the Castle, based on late Tudor designs, bears Lambert's name.

On the 29th December 1672 the donjon or keep of the castle was hit by lightening. The living quarters of the Governor, Lord Hatton were destroyed together with the medieval Great Hall and the chapel. They were never rebuilt. Lord Hatton survived but his wife, mother and five other people were killed. After this accident no Governors ever lived in the Castle again.

18th Century

By this time the Castle stood well within the range of artillery positioned in St Peter Port. However, with increasing international tension in the mid 1700's it still served as an important fortress, armed with over 70 guns and a garrison of up to 300 men. During this period several new barrack buildings were added to the Castle to house an enlarged British garrison.

The Lower Barracks was built around 1745 and housed men of the Royal Artillery who manned the castle guns. The Upper Barracks was designed by John Henry Bastide and built between 1745 and 1750. It housed four companies of infantrymen. The Hospital building was built in 1746, although it did not serve as a hospital before 1789. After 1855 it was used as a canteen. The citadel, found at the top of the Castle, contains a range of bombproof casemates built as a means of increasing barrack accommodation.

By 1800 the Castle was considered to be inadequate as a garrison stronghold and Fort George replaced Castle Cornet as the main barracks for the island.


The harbour was extended and a wooden bridge built to connect it to Castle Cornet. The bridge was replaced with the concrete structure seen today following the Second World War.

Two 12-pounder quick firing guns were installed on the citadel.

1940 - 1945

During the German Occupation of the Channel Islands the castle was known as Stuzpunkt Hafenschloss (Strongpoint Harbour Castle). Through the Second World War it housed Luftwaffe flak (anti-aircraft) units. Many modifications were made to the castle during this period as the defences once again had to be brought up to date for modern warfare. Many structures from this period including personnel shelters and gun emplacements can still be seen today.

History of North St. Paul Incorporated in 1887

Henry A. Castle was many things to many people but perhaps chief among them, he was a leader, in every sense of the word. A Columbus, Illinois native, Henry A. Castle was a father, soldier, journalist, politician, entrepreneur, and a humanitarian. He possessed an uncanny ability to be everything to everyone, and was forever a servant to his community ceaseless in his efforts to innovate and progress. It was his eternal hunger for opportunity and his vision for a vibrant and promising future which helped shape the indelible legacy of North St. Paul – an extraordinary small town in a big city.

Castle settled in St. Paul in 1868 with his family at the age of 27. For a young man in his twenties, Castle was well beyond his years and quickly became a figure of great significance. In 1872, Henry A, Castle a former Civil War officer, lawyer, state legislator and owner/editor of the St. Paul Dispatch Newspaper, purchased 520 acres of farmland Northeast of St. Paul. By 1884 Castle had accumulated 1200 acres of land south and east of Silver Lake. As a man with considerable political influence, Castle was able to enlist other investors to join him in his development venture.

He was also given a tremendous boost in 1885 when the Wisconsin Central Railroad ran their eastbound line through the center of his town site.

North St. Paul was incorporated in 1887. In May, 1887 construction of factories, homes churches and businesses began in the City Castle named North St. Paul. As reported in the 1888 Northwest magazine, a business publication, 6 churches, over 20 retail businesses, a brick school house, 12 factories and more than 80 homes had been completed by December of 1887. The future looked bright for North St. Paul, however, in 1893 a financial panic (depression) created serious problems and failures for many North St.Paul businesses.

Friday 1-4 p.m.
Saturday 10 a.m.-1 p.m.
Also by appointment for special tours and groups.

2666 7th Avenue
North St. Paul MN 55109
[email protected]

Museum Curator
Paul Anderson

North St. Paul Notes Show
Host: Paul Anderson
Tune in to GTN Channel 16

The History Of Paul Hardcastle

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The story of Glenveagh, its landscape and its people is a fascinating tale…

The estate of Glenveagh was created in 1857-9 by the purchase of several smaller holdings by John George Adair, a wealthy land speculator from Co. Laois. John Adair was to later incur infamy throughout Donegal and Ireland by ruthlessly evicting some 244 tenants in the Derryveagh Evictions.

After marrying his American born wife Cornelia, Adair began the construction of Glenveagh Castle in 1867, which was completed by 1873. Adair however was never to fulfil his dream of creating a hunting estate in the highlands of Donegal and died suddenly in 1885 on return from a business trip to America.

After her husband’s death Cornelia took over the running of the estate and introduced deer stalking in the 1890’s. She continually sought to improve the castle’s comforts and the beauty of its grounds, carrying out major improvements to the estate and laying out the gardens. Over the next 30 years she was to become a much noted society hostess and continued to summer at the castle until 1916.

Following the death of Mrs Adair in London in 1921, Glenveagh fell much into decline and was occupied by both the Anti-treaty and Free State Army forces during the Irish civil war.

Glenveagh’s next owner was not to be until 1929 when purchased by Professor Arthur Kingsley Porter of Harvard University who came to Ireland to study Irish archaeology and culture. The Kingsley Porters mainly entertained Irish literary and artistic figures including close friend AE Russell whose paintings still hang in the library of the castle. Their stay was to be short however as Arthur Kingsley Porter mysteriously disappeared from Inishbofin Island in 1933 while visiting the island.

The last private owner was Mr Henry McIlhenny of Philadelphia who bought the estate in 1937. Henry McIlhenny was an Irish American whose Grandfather John McIlhenny grew up in Milford a few miles north of Glenveagh. After buying the estate Mr McIlhenny devoted much time to restoring the castle and developing its gardens.

Eventually Henry McIlhenny began to find travelling to and from Ireland too demanding and the upkeep of the estate was also becoming a strain. In 1975 he agreed the sale of the estate to the Office of Public Works allowing for the creation of a National Park. In 1983 he bestowed the castle to the nation along with its gardens and much of the contents.

Glenveagh National Park opened to the public in 1984 while the castle opened in 1986. Today as under private ownership Glenveagh continues to attract and inspire visitors from all over the world.

Please contact us if you have any specific enquiry we can help with in the meantime.

Watch the video: Acid Pauli at Garni Temple near Yerevan, Armenia for Cercle (May 2022).