The story

Violet I ScTug - History

Violet I ScTug - History

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Violet I

(ScTug: t. 166; 1. 85'; b. 19'9"; dph. 11'9"; a. 1 12 pdr., 1 12-par. r.)

Violet—a wooden steam tug built as Martha in 1862 at Brooklyn, N.Y.—was purchased by the Navy at New York City on 30 December 1862 for use during the Civil War; and was commissioned at the New York Navy Yard on 29 January 1863.

Soon after her commissioning, Violet was dispatched to Newport News, Va., for duty as a tug with the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. On 27 March she received orders to proceed to the blockade off Cape Fear Inlet, near Wilmington, N.C., and finally arrived for duty in early April after a storm off Cape Hatteras, N.C., had forced her return to Hampton Roads in a sinking condition on 28 March.

While off Wilmington, the vessel performed double duty as both a tug and a blockader. On the night of 11 April, she chased and fired upon an unidentified steamer and, in the company of Aries, discovered the blockade-running British steamer Ceres aground and burning at the mouth of the Cape Fear River on 6 December. When Ceres floated free during the night, Violet seized her and extinguished the fire. Violet, herself, grounded on 20 December while attempting to refloat the Confederate blockade-running steamer Aztonica. She lay aground for two nights and a day, and, at one time, salvagers feared she would become a total loss. However, after her guns had been heaved overboard, the vessel was refloated.

Early in 1864, Violet underwent repairs at the Norfolk Navy Yard, Va., and in April was assigned duty as a tug to the ironclad Roanoke off Newport News. Her orders were to maintain a vigilant nighttime and foul weather guard over the ironclad and be prepared to tow the warship to safety or run down any enemy vessels in the event of a Confederate attack. She performed this task until 20 July, when she was fitted with a torpedo device and reassigned to her old blockade station off the Cape Fear River. There, on the night of 7 August, she ran aground while proceeding to her inshore station, close to the shoal off Western Bar, N.C. Despite the efforts of both her crew and volunteers from other nearby vessels to float her off, the tides forced Violet harder aground. Finally, seeing that the situation was hopeless, Violet's captain and crew fired her magazine to prevent capture, and the vessel blew up on the morning of the 8th.


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Violet, in physics, light in the wavelength range of 380–450 nanometres in the visible spectrum. The shortest wavelength of violet is the shortest of all wavelengths of light discernible to the human eye. In art, violet is a colour on the conventional wheel, located between red and blue and opposite yellow, its complement. Pigments for violet come from berries, cobalt phosphate or cobalt arsenate, carminic acid, kermesic acid, manganese, and artificial chemical compounds.

Violet is a basic colour term added late to languages. The word violet derives from Old French violet or violete. One of the first written records of the term in English is from The Buke of John Maundeuill (mid-14th century): “Men fynd dyamaundz of violet colour” (“Men find diamonds of violet colour”).

In addition to the colour wheel, various other colour systems have been used to classify violet. Before the invention of colour photography, Werner’s Nomenclature of Colour (1814) was frequently used by scientists attempting to accurately describe colours observed in nature. In that book the so-called tint “Violet Purple” is compared to the “Purple Aster” and the “Amethyst.” In the Munsell colour system—adopted in the early 20th century to standardize colour, usually for industry—one of the many variations of violet is identified as 10PB 7/12.


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Viola, genus of about 500 species of herbs or low shrubs, including the small, solid-coloured violets and the larger-flowered, often multicoloured violas and pansies. Viola occur naturally worldwide but are found most abundantly in temperate climates, with the greatest variety occurring in the Andes Mountains of South America.

Wild Viola may be annuals or perennials. Because Viola freely hybridize, however, it is often difficult to identify their species. The flower, variable in colour, but not red, usually grows singly on a stalk and has five petals, four arranged in unlike pairs, the fifth with a spur (see photograph ). The leaves may grow on the same stalk as the flower (stemmed violets) or on separate stalks (stemless violets). Though the best-known Viola have heart-shaped leaves, the leaves of other species may have different shapes.

Typically, Viola grow in meadows or damp woods. All wild species bloom early in the spring, but some cultivated varieties bloom later. Many species have two types of flowers. One type is showy and appears in the spring but often does not produce seeds in some species. The fertile, less conspicuous flower appears in the early summer and is completely closed and self-fertilizing.

Among the most common North American species are the common blue, or meadow, violet (V. papilionacea) and the bird’s-foot violet (V. pedata). The common blue violet grows up to 20 cm (8 inches) tall and has heart-shaped leaves with finely toothed margins. The flowers range in colour from light to deep violet, or they may be white. The bird’s-foot violet, a perennial named for its deeply cleft leaves, has variably coloured flowers, with lilac and purple combinations.

Species of Viola have been widely cultivated in gardens and nurseries. The popular florist’s violets, consisting of several hybrids (many of them V. odorata) are usually called sweet violets.

The pansy is a hybrid that has been grown in gardens for centuries. The so-called African violet belongs not to Violaceae, in the order Malpighiales, but to Gesneriaceae, in the order Lamiales.

This article was most recently revised and updated by William L. Hosch, Associate Editor.

Viola odorata can be distinguished by the following characteristics:

  • the flowers are scented [1]
  • the flowers are normally either dark violet or white
  • the leaves and flowers are all in a basal rosette
  • the style is hooked (and does not end with a rounded appendage)
  • the leaf-stalks have hairs which point downwards
  • the plant spreads with stolons (above-ground shoots)

These perennial flowers mature at a height of 4–6 in (10–15 cm) and a spread of 8–24 in (20–61 cm). [1] The species can be found near the edges of forests or in clearings it is also a common "uninvited guest" in shaded lawns or elsewhere in gardens.

Several cultivars have been selected for garden use, of which V. odorata 'Wellsiana' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. [3] [4]

The sweet scent of this flower has proved popular, particularly in the late Victorian period, and has consequently been used in the production of many cosmetic fragrances and perfumes. [5] The French are also known for their violet syrup, most commonly made from an extract of violets. In the United States, this French violet syrup is used to make violet scones and marshmallows. The scent of violet flowers is distinctive with only a few other flowers having a remotely similar odor. References to violets and the desirable nature of the fragrance go back to classical sources such as Pliny and Horace when the name ‘Ion’ was in use to describe this flower from which the name of the distinctive chemical constituents of the flower, the ionones – is derived. In 1923, Poucher wrote that the flowers were widely cultivated both in Europe and the East for their fragrance, with both the flowers and leaves being separately collected and extracted for fragrance, and flowers also collected for use in confectionery galenical syrup [6] and in the production of medicine.

There is some doubt as to whether the true extract of the violet flower is still used commercially in perfumes. [7] It certainly was in the early 20th century, [6] but by the time Steffen Arctander was writing in the late 1950s and early 1960s, production had "almost disappeared". [5] Violet leaf absolute, however, remains widely used in modern perfumery. [8] [9]

The leaves are edible. [10] Real violet flower extract is available for culinary uses, especially in European countries, but it is expensive.

In herbal medicine, V. odorata has been used for a variety of respiratory ailments, [11] insomnia, [ citation needed ] and skin disorders. [12] [13] [14] However, there is insufficient evidence to support its effectiveness for these uses. [13]

The violet flower was a favorite in ancient Greece and became the symbol of Athens. Scent suggested sex, so the violet was an emblematic flower of Aphrodite and also of her son Priapus, the deity of gardens and generation. [15] [16] [17]

Iamus was a son of Apollo and the nymph Evadne. He was abandoned by his mother at birth. She left him lying in the Arkadian wilds on a bed of violets where he was fed honey by serpents. Eventually, he was discovered by passing shepherds who named him Iamus after the violet (ion) bed.

The goddess Persephone and her companion Nymphs were gathering rose, crocus, violet, iris, lily and larkspur blooms in a springtime meadow when she was abducted by the god Hades. [18]

V. odorata may be the species mentioned in Shakespeare's famous lines:

"I know a bank where the wild thyme blows, Where oxlips and the nodding violet grows, Quite over-canopied with luscious woodbine, With sweet musk-roses and with eglantine" [19]

What History Didn’t Tell Us about the Nazi “Super Baby” Breeding Program

If there was one subject that could ever truly capture my attention at school, it was the monster story that was Adolf Hitler’s Nazi regime. I’ve admittedly always been a ‘bad reader’, but outside of class I devoured books on the war as a teenager and still to this day, there seems to be no end to its disturbing secrets buried beneath history’s hidden rocks. Today, I fell into another dark pool of World War II’s repressed footnotes by discovering the details of the Lebensborn breeding program … a story that I would only recommend for those who, like myself, have that insuppressible desire to learn history’s most uncomfortable truths.

Lebensborn, meaning “fount of life” was an SS-initiated program that encouraged anonymous births by unmarried “racially pure” women who were selected to breed with Nazi officers and secure the future of a “super race” for the German Reich. The program expanded into several Nazi occupied countries including Norway, France and Belgium, resulting in a shameful post-war ostracism of surviving Lebensborn mothers and the mistreatment of their displaced children across Europe after Germany lost the war.

Frida Lyngstad of ABBA was a survivor of the Lebensborn

An estimated 8,000 children were born in Lebensborn institutions in Germany, up to 12,000 children in Norway and countless others across occupied countries where “super babies” had been selected become part of the German master race. The most famous of the surviving Lebensborn children is Frida Lyngstad of the iconic Swedish pop band, ABBA (pictured third from left).

With their blue eyes and blond hair, Norweigans were regarded by the Nazi regime as especially Aryan. Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS and the creator of the Lebensborn, favoured Norwegian women for his perverted program and set up the majority of its institutions in Nazi occupied Norway.

To counteract falling birth rates in Germany, and to promote Nazi eugenics, leaders of the League of German Girls were also instructed to recruit young women with the potential to become good breeding partners for SS officers.

Young women who could prove their Aryan ancestry were given incentives for bearing Aryan children, including financial support and privileged treatment in maternity homes. For many Norwegian women, it became a survival strategy during the war, when their country was one of the poorest places in Europe. At a time when abortion was illegal, they could also have the option of leaving or donating their children in the Lebensborn’s special homes, where the child would receive special nutrition and an upbringing and education which reflected the Nazi way of thinking. The Iron Cross award was given to the women who bore the most aryan children.

Due to destruction and widespread cover-up of Lebensborn records, it cannot be confirmed whether young girls were forced to mate with Nazi officers, despite strong suggestion that they were (sexual assault was almost official policy within the Third Reich). The program was undoubtedly however, a system of supervised selective breeding, and recently discovered records show that “some SS men did sire children in Himmler’s Lebensborn program”.

Just to remind us, I took the liberty of pulling up the definition of ‘sire’ : the male parent of an animal, especially a stallion or bull kept for breeding.

In 1939, membership of the Lebensborn stood at 8,000, of which 3,500 were SS leaders.

Heinrich Himmler pictured with his daughter in 1938 in Berlin. (AP-Photo)

On 13 September 1936, Heinrich Himmler had written the following to members of the SS:

The organisation “Lebensborn e.V.” serves the SS leaders in the selection and adoption of qualified children. The organisation “Lebensborn e.V.” is under my personal direction, is part of the Race and Settlement Central Bureau of the SS, and has the following obligations:

1. Support racially, biologically and hereditarily valuable families with many children. 2. Placement and care of racially, biologically and hereditarily valuable pregnant women, who, after thorough examination of their and the progenitor’s families by the Race and Settlement Central Bureau of the SS, can be expected to produce equally valuable children. 3. Care for the children. 4. Care for the children’s mothers.

It is the honorable duty of all leaders of the central bureau to become members of the organisation “Lebensborn e.V.”. The application for admission must be filed prior to 23 September 1936.

Relationships between German soldiers and Nordic women in occupied countries were strongly encouraged, provided both parents were proven to be “racially valuable”. The program also accepted women of Aryan descent who were already pregnant or had already given birth and were in need of aid. About 60% of the mothers were unmarried and the Lebensborn allowed them to give birth secretly away from home without social stigma. In most of these cases, the mothers agreed to adoption, but not all were informed that their children would be sent abroad to Germany.

One of the Lebensborn institutions

The first of more than 20 Lebensborn homes opened in 1936, in a tiny village near Munich in 1941, the first institution abroad was opened in Norway.

A Lebensborn house in France

In northern France, a home was opened in the town of Lamorlaye in 1944 where an estimated 200 children were born. The building (pictured above) now houses a branch of the Red Cross. The Lebensborn facilities included an on-site orphanage and offered adoption services. They were often established in confiscated houses and former nursing homes owned by Jews.

While the program initially excluded children born to foreign women and common (non-SS) soldiers for reasons of racial purity, the Lebensborn later expanded into countries with Germanic populations where parents and children were usually examined by SS doctors before admission. But in an even darker twist to the Lebensborn program, the strict requirements of racial purity were practically abandoned altogether by Heinrich Himmler when he took his mission to unimaginable extremes…

In 1939, under Himmler’s direction, Nazis began kidnapping thousands of children regarded as “Aryan-looking” from foreign countries, most notably Poland and Yugoslavia, but also from Russia, Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Estonia, Latvia, and Norway – for the Lebensborn program.

Himmler reportedly said, “It is our duty to take [the children] with us to remove them from their environment… either we win over any good blood that we can use for ourselves and give it a place in our people or we destroy this blood”.

The policy of the Lebensraum had essentially given birth to the Nazi ideology of German expansionism and the regime’s plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale. This was the real crime of Lebensborn, a seemingly helpful, almost innocent welfare solution for struggling women. How easily evil can disguise itself…

A Nazi nurse shares the light rays as scientists try vainly to lighten the hair coloring of Super Race children

An estimated 200,000 children were stolen from their parents in Poland, Russia and several Eastern European regions for the purpose of ‘Germanization’. They were categorised into groups from the “most desirable” to the least Aryan-looking. If they couldn’t be of use to help build Hitler’s master race, they were discarded and sent off to concentration camps. If a child was considered “acceptable” they would begin indoctrination, spending time at ‘re-education camps’ before being fostered out to German families or boarding schools where they could become culturally German. They were given new German names and forced to forget their birth parents and ancestry. Any children who fought against their indoctrination or resisted, met a tragic fate.

All records of these mass kidnappings were destroyed in the final stages of the war, which made it near impossible to locate and identify children or even know exactly how many were taken. The Polish government has claimed that less than 15% of 10,000 children were returned to their biological parents.

Of the Norwegian children that were born into or indoctrinated under the Lebensborn program, the Norwegian government was able to recover all but 80 after the war. Local communities who had lived in starvation for most of the occupation, sought revenge on both the mothers and children of the Nazi maternity homes where members had received the best treatment available.

The press reported on the unusually well-fed “super babies” that had received two baths a day. Lebensborn mothers were publicly beaten, shamed, ostracized and often sentenced to slave labour. The “superior” children who had effectively become German under the Third Reich’s program, were considered outcasts and placed in orphanages or even in insane asylums where they would be relentlessly bullied and abused. The Norwegian government itself even attempted (unsuccessfully) to deport the Lebensborn children to Germany, Brazil, and Australia.

Sweden took in several hundred unwanted children from Norway, including future ABBA singer Anni-Frid Lyngstad, whose father was a German sergeant. Her widowed Norwegian mother escaped persecution after the war and took Anni-Frid to Sweden, where their personal history could not be traced.

In 2008, a group of survivors brought a case before the European Court of Human Rights to fight the Norwegian government into admitting complicity in their mistreatment, revealing shameful details of the program’s aftermath. The case was dismissed with a compensation offering of £8,000 from the Norwegian government.

Associations have since been formed to help survivors identify their origins through documents administered by the International Tracing Service and the German Federal Archives.

There are so many facets of war that have been under-reported, swept under the carpet and left out of the history books, in large part due to the fact that we find them uncomfortable to talk about. I consider this sort of taboo historical knowledge as further education a most fundamental one, that can help us identify dangerous patterns in society and recognise early on when history might be dangerously close to repeating itself.

Q. What can you tell me about the history of purple glass?

I recently found a piece of purple glass in a field, and I am interested in the history of purple glass to get a better idea how old this piece might be.

Hello! Thank you for your question. Purple glass is made from the metal oxide manganese, which is added to the batch ingredients. Many glass manufacturers, such as the Imperial Glass Company, produced purple glass. It is also possible that your glass piece might once have been clear but turned purple when exposed to the sun.

According to another Museum staff member who has researched this subject:

Many glassmakers through the centuries have attempted to produce clear, colorless glass. Impurities, especially iron oxide, in the batch ingredients that were melted to make the glass often resulted in glass that was greenish instead of the desired "water clear."

An interesting characteristic of colorless glasses which contain manganese dioxide as a decolorizer is their tendency to turn different shades of purple when exposed to the rays of the sun or to other ultra-violet sources. It is a photochemical phenomenon that is not yet perfectly understood. It is generally accepted that the ultra-violet light initiates an electron exchange between the manganese and iron ions. This changes the manganese compound into a form that causes the glass to turn purple.

It was in the mid 19th century that manganese dioxide, popularly called "glassmaker's soap," began to be used by American glass manufacturers as a decolorizer. By including a small amount of this ingredient in the melt, they could produce glass that appeared virtually colorless. An 1899 publication by Benjamin Biser remarked, "The especial use of manganese in glass is to mask or neutralize the greenish color imparted to the glass by the protoxide of iron. Manganese imparts to glass a pink or red tint, which being complementary to green, neutralizes the color and permits the glass to transmit white light. Pellat refuted this theory, and claimed that the green tint of iron was not neutralized by the pink of manganese, and thus subduing it but by the iron taking another charge of oxygen from the manganese and becoming per-oxide of iron, and producing a reddish yellow tint, while the protoxide produces a green tint."

Glass scientists today generally agree with Apsley Pellat, explaining that an ion exchange between the iron and the manganese molecules changes the observed color of the glass.

In the early 20th century, changes in manufacturing processes, as well as more pure batch materials, dictated different ways to decolorize glass, and the use of manganese oxide for this purpose dwindled.

It is impossible to determine the age of your glass without having an expert examine it, but you can send pictures of your glass object to our curatorial department. They may be able to provide you with additional information or point you in other directions. You can contact them through their online form (

Please do not hesitate to contact us with your glass-related questions in the future!

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I .i..AA Vi EL PRICDAS:1-DyjJd 'inchwedd 24ain, yu .ghapcl õ::Ilio!J, L!aasa"d, gun y i'arch. L'. -H. KicU- aru. UI!ya lUe gian brHA.las Mis& Va -cÜed!UClliH, LlulIsa" e1, a -1. i Utiorgc U.j<uttS, iyM.thyn, Pantug, gcr will. hnoudwyO y bnoetasicrch gan el thad, a ga' a tnorwyn y briodaa ueddyut Mary WilHamx, iyrciLhyn (cinvacr y pnoufab), a Mr..i.'om Jones Davids, Achcthuchai. l.'a1yu g'wlcdu brwda:i an:ùercllO.g )'11 ngh<1'trd y l!J'yd Y1' ocelLi ytl uy da o a chyfcilhcn 1 r teulU, ac cù g clSOUl Air. a Mr.'i. Dav" AchetlJuchai y Parch. a Mrs. Richards Mr. a I)avies, 7elLiivii- Mr. a .Mrs. Lew.s, PaMtyrcga'r, Mr. a Mrs. JcuM, Achethi-)afMr.aMrs.iiiian)s,Ach&eurochgan(jiMrs Jotips, k,t,D Mr, Davics, 15¡aeUs'CH' Mr. a Mrs. Uavics, Pantia.nau Mr. Evans, Rhydymeirch, ,1). a tIIS, Evan", CastG'f! Mr. a 41or Rhyglin Iis Richards, Hank. a Mawer erein. MA.RVOf.A?rH.&mdashBiingenymortudcoinodijnarwol- a?eth a chiaddcdigactii Mrs. Mary Ti)0)Mas, ?.o. 4, Castle-h.'Hac! Hansawct. Yr oedd &eurodi cyrhaedd yr (jcdran teg' o 79 mlwydd. Cafodd tua tuia o gys- tudd trvu), end dioddetodd yr oil yn atnyncddgar j gan bwyso ar .:i Clw:dwad., PrydnawtL Gwcncr, Tachwedd 25:un. hedodd ei hysbryd t'r fiifyd mawr, gan gcfnu bytit ar bechod, cy-tudd)au, a h-enaint. DyddMawrtitaa,rt]yn.oI, yn)ga.<?ioddTi)yrfa u'l ('hyfeiUion a n))&eurorthynasau yn ttghyd i <jsod yr hyn. oedd farwol ohoni i orwedd yn nwddrod <'i phrind Siloh, y yn y ty gan y Parch. D. Jones, B.A-, Bcthei yn y caiwt gan y Parch. iJ. B. Richnr' ei gwfin'dog, ac ar !an y bt'dd gan y Parch'. J. D. Evan-. B.A.. curad, Mynwy. ?nd ychydig nynyddu yn o] <h'ch?c!usant Mynwy. )iid ychydig nynyddu yn o] dycjlYe'lasant. ) fyw i L1HlSawl'L yn yr hyn 1e' vr ocddynt wedi ciaddu eu hanwyl fachscn. yr h o<'dd a,'i wyneb ar y wp'nidog'aeth pan y tf'rwyd ef i ]awr yn gynar a yn llghanol obf>ithon. yn aekd n'ydd)awn o eglwys Shiloh. !!<? y tcirdir chwithdnd n)awr ar ci ho), am ci bod o gytn'eriad catf'dtg a dtddrwg. Y prif a.]ai'Vfyr oeddynt&mdashMr. a Mrs. Uavics. "Rrytitonfa," Brynamman()naba i11pch- yn-nghyfrairh) Mr). Winiam. John. James, Rhys, Dav'ps. Pantyrhendrp, Oarmpi (chwapr): Mr. Rhy-? Davids, Amma.nford Mr. Wm. Davic'?, a Mis-.cs Hettx' a Marv DavM- Penman. L!ansav?: Mr. John Davics. Dandfito: Mr?. Jones, P0ntHT(luJais Mr. Dan Evans. Bw!chygwynt. (loaint) Juno-a Mrs. Morgana Morn'-trn(nf'iaint): Mr n. Mrs. Davics. M'H, a Din-ips. Tv<-prr]?. a Mr. WiUic. Cavios, Tyccrrig, etc. Heddwch i'w ]]wch.

------------! ______BARDDONIAETH.

_BARDDONIAETH. '"<'YMMWYNAS. <j!noyd cymmwynas sydd yn arwydd 0 haelionus natur fwyn Pan to dyn mewn unrhyw aHwydd GWl.ddll' ydyw gwrando'i gwyn Dyiid amiwg gydymdeimlo 9 A phwy bynag fyddo'n drist, garedig gyntioi-tiinvvo Can gynawnu cyfraith Crist. YSTORM. Yn awr daw anwar dywydd&mdashnlwcidiol Afivydwyi!t o'r Werydd neh y HiM cliwa aHonydd Xvyfus yn arswydus sydd. Anfwyn wynt yn eofn wau&mdashhe3dyw sydd A'i fel Ei g'wyn hir nid yw'n gwanhau, 0 sarug- yw er's oriau. Twrw tost geid trwy y tir,&mdashcoedydd ('('dym a ysgydwir Y tro iach a frawychir. Yn nydd ci gynddaredd Y)' av.ron gar< ddigioncdd Od o ",rUt ydyw ci wedd. awel ruo-vn erch Pan yw yn myn'd heibio Rhag ei hirad f)ad y fro Eirian hon gryna heno! P!-<tatyn, J. MYRDDIX THOMAS. CAN 0 CLOD I Mrs. Evans, Giantovy Fa",]', A b 1 We), 'uawr inae arnaf avydd I rod.di pwt o gan, Ac mac' ryw fil dostynau Y:t xyt'tiuo o fy mia'n Upwi'-af finnau'r goreu, H 'b ddint anthcuaeth bron, A'r testyn tiawr.. fel gwclwch, Yw can i'r "lady" hen. Hoc<! < d i Mrs. Evang, Y ''iady'' Ion o'r wiad, An! ddanfon i mi anrheg' luJ' fy nhad Fc d'.t:nod<t hon fy awf'n, Yn apth fcl tan, wl'lais lTIclyn Yn gwcnu o fy m!a'n. Dynmnai 'nawr rhoi diolch Fr foncddigcs hon, X! a hi byth yn anghof Pe illentl'Wn dros y don Ki anrhpg a'i sirioidfb Fu'n ncfocdd won i n)i. Ac 'nnwr 'rwy'n canu c!odydd 'cinio Mynydd Du. !!<)<-(! Duv yn fcnditi) i chwl. A'r )eu!n cyfan e]yd, A n( )au ffawd siriola Kici) Hwybrau yn y byd: V<?i 'nawr rhaid "'orphfn canu, Fv ana) sy'n byrhau (jtobairhio caf eidh gwfied Xadoiig' yn dd:au. Penybont-ar-0gwy._ Tywi.-




ADGOFION. Mwyn adg'onon y goruhcnol Eni<!f'.vynaffun: Ddychweiifymeddwtweithiau mawrthfyhun. Liawcn oeddym pan rodianem WeithiauiawynHaw, Gyda gwenau ar cm gruddiau&mdash Ciiiaigofiddraw. D'euraidd wallt chwareuai'n nwyfua Ynyrawetfwyn Wrth ymbrancio ar y meusydd O&ddmorHawnoswyn Hapus oeddym ar ein hymdaith Ger y gornanr fach. Gwrandaw arni'n sisiat ganu- Canu'n groew&mdashcanu'n iach. Edrych ar dy ruddiau gwridgoch Oeddynswynimi. Gyda'tii dwy!aw gwynion tvner Yn fv nwvlaw I amser ar eu hvmdalth Gwnaeth y dwyia?v'n ritydd, LJawcr bryn a mynydd cribo? Rhyngom beliach sydd. Svllaf woithian ar y dyfnfor Eang sydd o'm biac-n, Gycla'i doiiau'n curo, curo Arygroa.'rmacn Ond mH mwy na'r dyfnfor eang Yw'nserchia.daui. Tnag ar fy Enid hawddgar&mdash Enidgaraffi. HAULFRTX.


CWMDUAD ElSTEODFOD.&mdashAn pistoddfod. hcid under the aus- pices of the Cwtuduad Temperance Party, was held :it (_mduad on November 25tlt, the chairman being .Lc Kev. E. 1 Owen, Saran, Llangeler. The adjudi- cators were&mdashMusic, Mr. Dunn WiHiams Hterature and recitations. Rev. D. Prvse Williams. Ffvnoa- ?enry: prue bags Mrs. Job. Conwit, and'Mrs. I)ai(?, Nantyctawdduchaf. The accompanist was Miss hvans, Gwyn ViHa, Llanpumpsaint. The list of awards was a.- follows:&mdashChief choral (4), Ffynon- Miss hvans, Gwyn ViHa, Llanpumpsaint. The list of awards was a.- follows:&mdashChief choral (4), Ffynon- nenn party (!eadpr. Mr. THomas). Male voice, "Cyd- ?at) 'Mor'yr," Mr. PhilIIps, Coedmore, and party Ladi<s' choir, "LIwyn Onn,' Mi=s G. Owen. Fwrn- <hmd. and party. Children's choir, "Y Nefot Gor." Hwtciinewvdd choir (leader. Mr. Evans. Cwmcvrnen) Quartette, "Y Cusan Oaf." D. Grimths andpartv C, f Duett (soprano and a)to). "Aweion fy N"w !ad -1.[iFs Evans. G)andwr. and friend. Duch (tenor and bass), -jGwys t r Gad D. Griffiths and W. D. Hughe. ?o!o Mprano. "Hen lailh fy Mam," Miss M. Evans. Gwyn Viha, LIanpumpi-aint. So!o (alto). "Ben- dithiait Goed y Meusydd," Miss Evans. Glandwr. SoJo (bas=). "Gw!ad fy Nghaion," W. D. Hughes. oo to non-successful competitors, Daniel Jonea. Fenian, Convi). Solo. boys under 14, D. T. Daviea, j'pnstar. olo to chi!dren under 10, D. W. Eva!l! D-mrailt. olo to zirps under 14, Bertie Rees. Ffynonwen. Recitation. "Y Bywyd Fad." Miss Evans. jRhydhir. C'ilrhedyn. Recitation, under 14. Tom Davips. Penpa.rc. and WiHiam Henrv Davies, Conwi). Chiidren under 10. (1), Conwi), D. W. Evans: (2) Adeline Davies and W. Evans. Five l-b:1za", "Yr Ysgol Su]," Mr. John Davies. Nantv- thyddod.' Love letter, Mr. W. D. Hughes, CH- ntachnu. Letter to a nronigate son, Mr W. D- Hughea. C'ihmchan. Translation. Mr. Benjamin Thomas, Btaenffynon, LIangeler. Six questions on Genfra! Knowledge. Mr. B,Iainin Thomas. Ex- temnore address, Mr. Benjamin Thomas. F npunc- t)'ted passage. Tom James, Pcnrhlwlas. Wit. Mr. .Tones. CwrngeHI. CHrhedyn. Drawing. Master D. T. Davies, Penstar. Prize bags (1) Misf-, A. Evans, Rpd Lion. Cw?mduad: (2) Miss Thomas, Ty'rJume (5) Miss Rees. Cefntryal, LIangeler.


??S?'??'?ms?Msas. . m. . s?m?ms?s?s. For Infants, l Invalids and ( the fi ged. A F 0 0 D.. 0 f I great nutritive value, which can 8 . i). be made suitable for any S ? . degree of digestive power by js ? . M? ?? simple process ?of letting it Ss ? ?S. stand for a longer or shorter time g g at one stage of its preparation. ? ? Therefore Benger's Food is pre-eminently suited fcr ?, rftin ? Therefore Benger's Food is pre-eminently suited fcr ?, ? Infants and Invalids and those whose digestive powers B ? have become weakened by IMness or advancing age. s ? The British MeJ/co/ Journal says&mdash" Bengef's Food M ? has, by its excellence, established a reputation of its own." ? ? Mothers tmd interested peftons <trc requested to write for Booklet," Beng?r's Food ? ? tnd How to U<e it This content & Concise Guide to the Rearins of Infants," g ? and practica! Informttion on the c<re of InvaMdt, Convalescent*, and the Aged. ? <? Po?t free on application to Benger'* Food, Ltd., Otter Works. Manchttter. ,,< ? Post free on application to Benger'* Food, Ltd., Otter Works. Manchttter. ,,< ? m i!1 U1l m I . <. S. . ssssNaMaNaMt?? w


f rr J' :>. One Quality One Size One Price ? 6d. per large bottle ? very zt.,I-jci-e sell H.P.

--'-----NODiON 0 ABERGWILi




MR. JOHN HINDS A R ETRCES." At Olygydd y JomxAL. 'yr,-Cawu ya anerchiau ?r. jonn FL-iids ei fod UIUI i..lll¡t,U,¿LYUUiHl a. U¡¡,UWd,UUUd<1U L' £.ö'" .)', am ei ooa 11. yu .c.giW,yS "estronoi.' J:ll! !'1!,ylCUU yuyw gweku Bedydd.r yn gaiw Hen')'s y w.ttMi ya "e:¡rrullO,. IU.) 11 V 11, o ua ic y uac'tii crctydd lUr. hWU:i ijywed poo haneaydd m. yn Gcrmani yn y rW)'lH.iYIl Lt) .4.L y bI,),UWjU Co yi UYIll<1 tarn y lieuyuuwyl' y ny wiad tion. rc'h go CIlW)ttug hcdciyw ydyw Cl.)'WUj un u 4,10ciau y ,*<t Uctt?auaidd hun yu gaiw yr umg qynniut<jui a u.ii bout ?iytua?tii didor o ucsau tjJieual cred yti "ehrrutttjs. Cami "Myrddinfab" yu )a.wr Mr. John Hinds yn tra.ddudi da.riim ar iJm-.timd y .tl0UYUÙ- yr, neu ya ccisio egiuro pa. lodu y niac yr tA6,ivy6 yM '"etrollol. Nid "strulwl ji,o uutti, stcr, yti .iiiiaL'r Dewl Sant, mtc yehwaith pail y luaöodd y bei?ud Dafydd U<?u u timm?Uc,, m'?u ??dun-.t, . Ht Hy?, Uatydd .tp KdmwMu, Uulyud -? G?uyti', Daiydd -Naiiiiior, Urutiydd Crug, <j<iuttydd iiir- aetaog, loio Uoch, Liaw(ldeii, lOn"ent, a '1 Lluu1' Aied. Wrrh edrych ar y fhcaLi- itou u teirdd y Ca.:Kjl Ocsau hadd yw gweied icxi yr Eglwys yu y cvtnud hwtiw yn gcnediaethoi. Edtycitwu fto artu y'n attiscr y Dtwygia.d. Uuid dyaia gymod y gw ¡aU- wa.rtvvr, Dr. Richa.rd Davit's, Eduiwnu i'rys, iiuiiia-, Hu<jr,' Wiliiain Satsbri, Wiltiaul Murgati, a r Esgub Parry' Edrvchwn arni o aiiisei- y Diwyg'1aJ hyd heddyw. Gwelwn ym mhiitit ci r)i-ilarit -Io,.cs H- liams, EHis Wynn o'r Lasynys, Dr. Erasmus aun- dei-a, Griffith Jones o Landdowl'ur, 'iheopit.Ius Mvan, awdwr "Drych y Pnt Ofsocdd." Euwa:d Richard o YstradmuuDg, Daniel Ruwand o Lan- irpitho, Howf Harris o Drefucca, John Waiters a Thuinas Richards, y geiriaduron, Coronwy Owen, un o feirdd penal Cymru, Icuan Brydydd Hir, Carnhuauawc. Gwa.Mter Mcch.Mn, a Datuel Ddu o G<.redigion. Dytt'a b!a.nt a fagwyd ar fronnau yr "esrrones." Carcm wci<'d rhestr y Sect Gcrmanaidc) i ba u)) y perthynai Mr. John H.nds yn dyn rhestr i'w go,,<ocl wrth ochr hon sydd uchod. Ydyw yr Kgiwys ht-ddyw yn ,¡.enc>dlaetho? Cymnn'rwn 'i phrif wcuudogton&mdashyr He-,gobion. Pdwar Cymru yn mcdru iaith eu gw!ad. Cymmcrwn tri peiiiiaeth &euroin C'olcgau ccn<'d)aetho!, sef Caerdyd. Abcrystwyth, a Ban?or, oddigerth un, eef y Prifarhro Roberts, ni fedrant siarad iaith ein gwtad. Sicr. n' fedr Syr Harri Reichl am mai Gwyddcl yw. FcHy yr Eg- Jwys vdvw y sefydtiad mwyaf cpnpd)af'ti)o) a fpdd Cvniru heddyw. cr fod Mr. John Hinds yn pi ga!w hf vn "<?stroncs." Dy)ai pob Egh'yswr VOTIO yn f'i erbvn, am ei fod yn un o'r r].ai hyny sydd yn :-allg'u "PH Man) Ysprvdot o dan ci f-idd- och. dc" MYRDDIXF.B. At Olygydd y JOLH.AL. S ,&mdashYr vdwyf yn hyderu y i-itudd%vcli ufod I'r Pi!ll'liau hyn yn y JOURNAL.&mdashYn l'i aneidtiad <'thol- I jadoi m:'e Mr. Hinds yn son a,m Ddadwaddoli a DadgyssyJltu yr Patron Kgtwys yng iiviiiru. 13etit bynag yw ei feddwi ef am y term, y tnae yn andwg ti fud yu gamarwetniol yn g'yfeilwruus ac anwn?ddus wrth getsio ei gymwyso am yr H?n Fam -yr Egtwys -ydd wedi bod yn Nghyntru yn cadw olcùlIlr Gair i'r genedt ganrifocdd cyn r YmnaiUduwr Cymreig cyntaf. CyfeiriaJ Mr. Hinds vdyw Brynteg,&mdasha fydd e/e mor deg a ohyunabod v gwir am yr Kglwys? Oddiar iaw yr Kgtwyh y inae i, gencdt Cvmrcig we<hca<'t bpndirhion i hon sydd wedi bod yn Eglwys gyn'redinol i'r hobt vn eang ac vsgryt'hyrot ei hathrawia.<tit. Yr un fath vdvw e: "gwasanaeth yn y Bcdydd, mewn Priodas,' nK'wn Ciaddedigaeth i gardotyn a chy- fcx-thog wr. Ai yr Estron Egtwys y gGHir nalw yr un sydd wodi gwneyd cymaint o gymwynasau !'w ch<-nedl? Oddiar ei Haw y cafwyd y Beibl vn iaith v werin gan Esgob Morgan yn 1588. L'n o'i phiant, 1,,cliiiwnd Prs, roddodd y Satmanu ar gan iddi. Offeiriad opdd Gruffydd Jones, Handdowror. Gan Ficcr Pritcha'-d, Uanymdyfri, y cafwyd ''CanwyH y C'vnu'v." Onid orPeiriaid Cymrcig oeddynt awdwyr "D'-vch v Prif Oesoedd" a'r "Bardd Cwsg"? Rhoddodd offeiriaid gwladgarpt Cymru eu nawdd :)'u cof "0 -aeth i aU gychwyniad yr Eisteddfod Ckll¡",d'aethol. Onid yw'r ganrK ddiwcddaf yn n'.foethog o lenorion Egtwysig? Dyma rf'str odidog tIr. Hinds o offeiriaid-Gwalltf'1' Mfthain- Carn- huanawc. Llawdden, Archiagon Griniths, Thomas Rowlands, Nicander, Tudno, Tegid, Daniel Ddu, Ab Ithet, Briscoe, Sitfan Evans, Esgob Lloyd, Cynog, Edwards, Rhosyiiiedre, Deon Eh'azcr WiiHams, Peter Baylcy Wiliian?, Itor C?)' Aiu! EH? Wyn o Wyrfai, Hyw?I, a. liawer erc?M. Ai estrcn Egiwys sydd wedi magu cyma.nt o wyr ga)luog o ddysg a doniau Mcwn Ha'.v?r cyft'iriad rnae yr yn fwy agos at un egiwys yr yw 0 ran nifer ei hndodau..Mae y ihmuu pJw¿ tol yn dwyn cnau yr hen seintiau Cymrpig. Mac ci hy:!idr<Kiuon o b!ani addysg y vc['[t edi bod y)] ta . Hon ydyw' eghlYs sydd wed) bod an] gadw y Beibi yn yr ysgol ddyddioL A', psfrot) ydyw'r uair i roi i un o'r fat:) A ydych ddm) yn n)('d<)), M' Hind! y by(1d.i yn wod i <'h) rncddwt heth ydych yf 'yd jlP. yn galw ar I (let] <&euro ° ? UN O'B WEEIN. CY:GIIOR DGSBARTH ? CASTELLNEWYDD- K1L YX. At Oygydd y JOURNAL. :yr,-l:.J'lyu.aJ. 0.0U U cn newyaeuudur clüclwiw .1..1 1,1l1lj .1" i öa¡, yityidd o uati y 410'1 Ulo. ilJII vu1Í..ltl J!l ell :j"bùgau. 1- Ilh:L' U41 .1 U "dIL UÚLl c-isices, a olin uedd b,iJ.L "'h:U .li..ü:l!ll" ü ,.al )'11 gl'U 1 r btlul1.- oad jL' Ii, yu<.1 Yd Ul'¡' 1UUO. '1(1 ucUli )'u pan dClyweaodd fod rila1 0 g "Llhj'l g<tLCLl U1 b i:1uOu «l'"vJl.lUU y l1lll..l:l'[j it 111 g ourad. 't n a r, l 1' _mal' (JI w r, y w J' 1011 Ull 0 l' gwenhwyr weUI ¡¡,ll y C<tiJUlI t.w,. <.fyd<:t0 y <tUeiecU. --t ro<idch chwi brawi gahnnoi? Cais teg, t'eiivmg, a DOticudigaiuu ynyw, ac )ttae mor rhesynioj ac Utit'ttyw gais a ¿au v t am goaiau yti yr uudcL). UYJaI au ein gwtact o tJawO tod yi) baroct t IWyú al liatur wvj-. Am uaw wvthIJOS BIde In 0' r wedi bod, ra8g arbellIg, 'yu gOr!od cydlyn at eu gwaah am c.t yu y cüreu, am fOli reiid-er itiaiti-i ou ca ru(.i u. i'eg ydyw Uweyct eu boct yii cafi y swni aruufrc.iog o 'la1' y oyuo yn rh'] yu Gt'1l' I un 0 r t'YllJ(Jrw:yr <.ldwcyd tra Yll trin y yu y Bwrùd y celd digon I WUtyd eu ritoudant et 1 iytty- Etaliai y dy"ed Air. Uavies, <Jplt!, uti o'r cyjuychioiwyr dros biwyf yr ocdd yn rhaid cael gweithwyr ü a -Liangcier Jan oedu iiordd Hiaent.xjw) yu caei ei gweithio? Os ous digon yw caot, n'lc yr y pi-yd en WR]fh eto j II dweyd ci bod yn grt'uion ar ran y ("ynghor i rthod trwy fwyafrit g:ith axi godiad rhesymoi y riiai ydynt y)i gortod gweithio ar bob tvwvdd !mwn ocrfet a gwlybaniaeth. Mae y rhai sydd yn gweithio ar y ftordd sirol yn cac) ,Pini yr vythno-, ac yn gv&euro!thio am Jawer jlai o oriau ua r rhai syd<i o dan y C'ynghor Do&barth. Mac .)cb trdhdatwr aill bcidio gwastraftu'r tretiioedd, und nid op'- neb a gronyn o synwyr ynddo atn vneyd cam a phlmtyn iiafu, Yti awr, -Alir. "Aiiiaethvr a vdych cli i W, eto am ltoiii ria(l ca y yii UZI mol a theg, ac nad oeJdym unci yn (U liawj. iau? Dichon y daw rhyw fraad t ddadPcu eu haw)- iau yn hyawdi yn y Cynghor etc, ac y tynei-ir tipym ar dcimladau gwrthwynebol y sawl na. wnant Ics t'r gweithtwr. Dy)ai em byd fod yn Mawnach o dpgwch a chyfiawrtdpr i'r )!a.fu)wr yn y Cynghorau ac nid eu damsang yn anystyrio> o dart draed. 'Nid odd dim yn aÍ'esYll1ùl yn v cats, yn cnwedig pan nad <Jeddyut ond atM gaet bremtiau tebyg i w cyd- lafurwyr. A wndo hyn aed a hi. A gwadcd i'r hau) godi. Ma'e'r gwelthwyr yn dymuno diolch o ga)on i'r ael,(Iau hyny o<?ddynt yn rfafriot i ystyried cu cais- EfaUal y daw gair etc.&mdashYr eiddoch. ntc., TORWR CKHRYG. .o.-

------.._-------AT EIM BEIRDD

AT EIM BEIRDD Bf'f!i sy<!d yn bed ar ein beirdd? Onid ydynt yn dealt Cynn'aeg? Dywedasomyneinrhifyneyny diwcddaf fod genym ddigon o farddoniacth mown ani ci1we' in is, eto yn ddyddiol Y1' yn derbyn cynyrchion oudi wrthynt. Gwastran' am?er ar(ichiha:tywygwaithyn)ac'cheiddo,acnid ydym yn gyfrifoi am <tdiogeiweh y cynyrchion ynia. 1911. i-lioddNN,cli attitifa ar ,left awen liyd Pac, 1911. ($

- CASI ELLki k, W Y ijD-,zivlLYN

CASI ELLki k, W Y ijD-,zivlLYN 1AR:lc&OEligAD, Rhagtyr 2.&mdashYr ofdd y plisiau fei y cat)iyu:&mdashryrc, yti iyw,o ',s be I'/s dc yr ugnin 11)S pcictiyii, u 9 i 11 wythnos ofd, o 158 i los be y pen dciaid, yii lyw, 6c y pwys wyn, yn tyw, o ?c i b?c y pwys jiui, yn tyw, o 4<: i 4?c y pwys cufiod .euainc, cid y p"ys yn tyw ie!r, o !&s i s y CWpJ yn fyw, y pwys wedi eu i1add a.u rrwsto, o is 6c i 5s yr un wyau, 8 am Is YIIlPIIYIl 11re, YII i-oliau pwy. 0 ls 1- 1 b 2c y l')' yn daipau heb halen ae mewn Ilcstri, Is y pwys. BVRUD Y GWARCHEIDWAID.&mdashAr yr un dydd, cynhatiwyd <yfa.r:ud or Bwrdd niewn ysta.f(?i yn Metros Hati (cadeiryid) Mr. T. Bowen, Llandre (is-gadeirydd), ynghyd a-'r aelodau caniynol:&mdashMrs. Eva.ns, Esgau-, Pcnbryn Mri. E. Davies, Llan- dyssut: J-. Davie Abctcinon D. Jonij Nanty- gragen E. Jone.<, Mock B. Rees, Pencader R. Evans, Cross Hands J. Uavies, GeIIy J. Morgans, Hendy J. Jones, Bwlchclawdd T. Ll. Davids, BIaenafon D. Jones, Blaentlan J. UriQiths, Gwn- dwn N. Davies, Penbane E. Davies, Ftorest J. Recs, PIasnewydd J. D. Owen, Waunfa-wr T. Davies, Bronw')on T. Morris, Cefnmaeemawr J. Ctarke, Cwjn Morgan J. W. Lewis, Perthy- gopa J. Jones, Berian J. Davids, Pontgarcg H. Davies, Pantyrhebog D. Lewis, Frondeg D. D Jones, PenyraUt J. Thomas, Hendrewilym Dr. Jenkins, HenHan a Mr. D. T. George, ysgrifen- ydd. Adroddiadau y Rhcidwe.nyddion.&mdashDarIIenodd y rheidwcinyddion cu rhestra'u cynorthwyol. Yr oedd Mr. E. R-ees wedi talu yn bythcfnos Lbb 9s 3c. i 204 o diodion, a Mr. J. Thomas wedi talu yn yr un amser JB7S 10s. 6c. i 240 o dtodion. Yn Haw y Trysorydd.&mdashYr cedd y swm o JB1,025 13a. 7c. yn Haw y Trysorvdd, vn dwy Mog ar y swm uwch)aw .S500. TIodion yn y Tlotty.&mdashYr oedd 29 o dlodion yn y ty yn yr wythnos gyntaf o'r bythefnos, a 28 yn yr ail wythnos, ar gyfer 19 yn yr amser cyfcrbyniot ddeuddfng mis yn o). Or nifcr yr ocdd 5 yn egwan &eurou meddyHau, a 5 yn mynycitu yr ysgo! ddyddiol. Crwydriaid.&mdashYr oedd 125 o grwydriaid wedi bod yn y tiotty am y bythefnos, ar gyfer 110 yn yr amber cyfcrbyniol y ttwyddyn <Idiwcddaf. Cwasanac'th yn y Tiotty.&mdashCynygiodd Mr." J. Jones, Bwlchclawdd, btcidlais o ddiolchgarwch i'r Parch. W. Fi)'wcII, D.G., (.'asteiincwydd-Emlyn, ac i'r Mri. Griffiths a Thomas, efrydwyr yn Ysgol Ramadegol EmJyn, am gynhal gwasanaeth duwin- yddoi yn y dotty.&mdashCafodd ei fil:c- gan Mrs. Evans, Esgair, a chytunwyd yn unfrydol. Khodd Nadoiig.&mdashCynygiodd Mrs. Evans, Esgair, fod tal -itel -,i ro(.Idi tlodion am wythnos y Nadolig, o Is. yr un i rai mewn oed, a 6c. yr un i btant.&mdashCafodd ei eilio, a chytunwyd yn iinfi-ydol.-M.viiegodcl y C'adcirvdd y byd.(Iai yntau rhoddi ciniaw NadoHg, fct arfer, i diodion y <iotty. CYNGHOR DOSBARTH GWLEDIG LLAN- DYSSUL.&mdashAr yr un.uydd cynhaliwyd cyfarfod i-nisol y Cynghor hwn mewn ystafe11 yn y tlptty. Yr opdd yn bl'e:>enol-lr. J. Davies, Aberelnon .(cadc,l rydtl) Mr. D Jon<s. BiaenHan (is-gadeir- ydd), ynghyd a'r aetodau ereill, a Mri. C. Evans, a,ro)ygwr y Syrdd J. Bowen, arolygwr icchydol Dr. Powell, y meddyg iechydol a Mr. J. Evans, ysg'rifenydd. Arotygwr y Ffyrdd.&mdashMynegodd Mr. Evans fed y gwa:th o adgywdrio Kordd Pcnwalk wedi costi y swm 'o :E18 8s. Yr oedd Mr. T. Morris, Cefnmaes- iiiawr, or farn ne bvddai neu yn cael eu wario ai y ifordd hon y 'byddaj yn


LLANDVFRfOG DY!)U I.iU )' ythnos cWlw(,ddaf,vn mynwentUati- gvnUo. c)addwyd yr hyn o&dd farwot o'r diwcddar Mr. Tttomas Jotics, Pentre, Ystrad, gynt o G)yn- co!)v. Liandyfriog. Gwf-inyddwyd yn yr Ystrad gan ('anon Lewis, ncer y pt?yf. a'r Parch. &mdash Carston (?urad). Dygsvyd y corph gyda'r trcn i orsaf Ht - Han. ac oddiyno Jfurnwyd yn orymdaith o'i gyffilt- ion i fvnwoit IJangyn))o. Gwcinyddwyd yn IJan- <rvn))o ga,n y Parchn.' E. 0. Jones. M.A., rhcithor H. JonM. ncer Uandyfriog Carston. Ystrady- fodw< Yr ocdd "wroath" brydferth wedi ei danfon o Fgl,,vs v nlwvf. Y nrif aiarwyr oeddvnt: Mr. a Mrs" Rock rottage. Fetindre, a.'r plant: T. Jrot Mr. a Mrs. Jonathan Jones, a'r plant MT. David Jones (me'bion yr ymadawcdig). Dangosir nob cvdvmdcimtad a,'r gatarwyr. Yr oedd yr ymadaw- cdig vn 75, a.c yn adnabyddus i gylcli pang ]:nvn o gvfcHlion, fpt cvmvdcg ca.redig ac Egtwyswr eg- wvdoro!. Yn vstod ei o&euroB gwnacth ei ran yn dda. cvda'r Ysgot Su!. Pan yn bvw yn Liandyfriog uanwodd y swydd o warden yn Eglwys y plwyf. Iw


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Ultraviolet radiation

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ultraviolet radiation, that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum extending from the violet, or short-wavelength, end of the visible light range to the X-ray region. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is undetectable by the human eye, although, when it falls on certain materials, it may cause them to fluoresce—i.e., emit electromagnetic radiation of lower energy, such as visible light. Many insects, however, are able to see ultraviolet radiation.

Ultraviolet radiation lies between wavelengths of about 400 nanometres (1 nanometre [nm] is 10 −9 metre) on the visible-light side and about 10 nm on the X-ray side, though some authorities extend the short-wavelength limit to 4 nm. In physics, ultraviolet radiation is traditionally divided into four regions: near (400–300 nm), middle (300–200 nm), far (200–100 nm), and extreme (below 100 nm). Based on the interaction of wavelengths of ultraviolet radiation with biological materials, three divisions have been designated: UVA (400–315 nm), also called black light UVB (315–280 nm), responsible for the radiation’s best-known effects on organisms and UVC (280–100 nm), which does not reach Earth’s surface.

Ultraviolet radiation is produced by high-temperature surfaces, such as the Sun, in a continuous spectrum and by atomic excitation in a gaseous discharge tube as a discrete spectrum of wavelengths. Most of the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight is absorbed by oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere, which forms the ozone layer of the lower stratosphere. Of the ultraviolet that does reach Earth’s surface, almost 99 percent is UVA radiation.

When the ozone layer becomes thin, however, more UVB radiation reaches Earth’s surface and may have hazardous effects on organisms. For example, studies have shown that UVB radiation penetrates the ocean’s surface and may be lethal to marine plankton to a depth of 30 metres (about 100 feet) in clear water. In addition, marine scientists have suggested that a rise in UVB levels in the Southern Ocean between 1970 and 2003 was strongly linked to a simultaneous decline in fish, krill, and other marine life.

Unlike X-rays, ultraviolet radiation has a low power of penetration hence, its direct effects on the human body are limited to the surface skin. The direct effects include reddening of the skin (sunburn), pigmentation development (suntan), aging, and carcinogenic changes. Ultraviolet sunburns can be mild, causing only redness and tenderness, or they can be so severe as to produce blisters, swelling, seepage of fluid, and sloughing of the outer skin. The blood capillaries (minute vessels) in the skin dilate with aggregations of red and white blood cells to produce the red coloration. Tanning is a natural body defense relying on melanin to help protect the skin from further injury. Melanin is a chemical pigment in the skin that absorbs ultraviolet radiation and limits its penetration into tissues. A suntan occurs when melanin pigments in cells in the deeper tissue portion of the skin are activated by ultraviolet radiation, and the cells migrate to the surface of the skin. When these cells die, the pigmentation disappears. Persons of light complexion have less melanin pigment and so experience the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation to a greater degree. The application of sunscreen to the skin can help to block absorption of ultraviolet radiation in such persons.

Constant exposure to the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation induces most of the skin changes commonly associated with aging, such as wrinkling, thickening, and changes in pigmentation. There is also a much higher frequency of skin cancer, particularly in persons with fair skin. The three basic skin cancers, basal- and squamous-cell carcinoma and melanoma, have been linked to long-term exposure to ultraviolet radiation and probably result from changes generated in the DNA of skin cells by ultraviolet rays.

Ultraviolet radiation also has positive effects on the human body, however. It stimulates the production of vitamin D in the skin and can be used as a therapeutic agent for such diseases as psoriasis. Because of its bactericidal capabilities at wavelengths of 260–280 nm, ultraviolet radiation is useful as both a research tool and a sterilizing technique. Fluorescent lamps exploit the ability of ultraviolet radiation to interact with materials known as phosphors that emit visible light compared with incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps are a more energy-efficient form of artificial lighting.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.

ɿor her bravery she suffered atrociously'

Independent Dublin city councillor Mannix Flynn, who put forward the motion, said Violet Gibson was a person who "for some odd reason, the Irish establishment, and indeed the British establishment, have totally ignored".

"Like most people, and particularly women, who have done extraordinary things they are always pushed into the background," he told BBC News NI.

"If you look at World War One or World War Two, the women were right there with the men.

"Here and there now we pull the odd thing out of the bag to give them their dues, but it is a rare thing."

"For some strange reasons, Violet Gibson became some sort of an embarrassment, she got shunned, they tried to say she was insane to hide the shame."

Mr Flynn said Ms Gibson's family had given their support for the plaque and he expected the proposal to progress to its next committee stage in the coming weeks.

He said while it would be dependent on securing permission of the building's owner, a likely site for the plaque would be her childhood home in the Merrion Square area of Dublin.

Reader Comments

Violet roots

Submitted by Carol on May 21, 2021 - 7:03pm

I have a huge plant. The stem is very thick and is pushing up from the large double pot. It falls over. Can I cut the root shorter? I really no nothing about these plants, it was a gift and it keeps on giving. Just finished flowered the most flowers yet. Probably a good 5 years old.

African Violets

Submitted by Donna Watson on May 6, 2021 - 8:19am

I have a plant that is two african violets growing in the same pot. There is alot of exposed root. Should I attempt to separate the two or just put in a bigger pot and get as much of the root (where leaves have grown and been pulled off) in the soil. They are growing nicely - but more vertically than horizontally - the plants look like they are back to back.

My African violet

Submitted by Sherry on February 23, 2021 - 2:45pm

I repotted my violet a few weeks ago and every since she has been droopy and the edges of the leaves are curling what have I done wrong an what can I do too help it??

African Violet

Submitted by Rosalynn Lagden on February 22, 2021 - 10:39am

I sent for a plant last year in August it arrived as a small plant i planted it & its never grown never done anything i got some fresh soil & replanted it its still never done anything. Whats wrong why hasent it grown? I had a lovely plant i moved house & i lost it i had always grown them so it shows i can keep them. Please can you help me.

Thank you very much. I really

Submitted by elizabeth on September 16, 2020 - 9:03pm

Thank you very much. I really like your flowers. So beautiful!


Submitted by Richard on September 10, 2020 - 9:50am

Hi, I wanted to let you know I found your article about growing African violets very helpful. Thank you, Richard


Submitted by Linda Coleman on August 21, 2020 - 2:22pm

I have two plants that sit right next to each other. They both get watered and fertilized the same but one blooms and the other one wont. Do you have any ideas.

African Violet Not Blooming

Submitted by The Editors on August 24, 2020 - 3:18pm

Interesting! Are they the same age and size? African violets prefer to be a little bit pot-bound—it can encourage them to bloom. If one of your plants is smaller than the other, perhaps it’s not quite “grown in” enough.

Or, are they different varieties or species? If so, this could explain the difference in care preferences. Try adjusting some aspects of your care for the non-bloomer, such as moving it to a brighter spot, watering less or more, and so on.

African violet plant

Submitted by Geraldine V. Siemens on August 4, 2020 - 5:20pm

My plant has abundant heathy green leaves, no flowers, it has bloomed in the past.
What is wrong with it?

Lighting and Watering

Submitted by The Editors on August 24, 2020 - 3:07pm

Lack of flowering usually results from a problem with either watering or lighting (or both). First try moving the plant to a brighter location. They prefer bright, indirect light, but may be scorched by direct sunlight, so keep them out of south-facing windows.

If it’s still not blooming, consider fertilizing it with an African violet fertilizer. That may stimulate it to produce flowers!

African violet new plants

Submitted by Liz A. Gorson on July 19, 2020 - 5:43pm

I have an AV plant looking strange. Looked under the leaves and found a small single plant..not much of a root just a nub..I barely scraped nub as to take scab off..took plastic wrap and made a small covering several layers. filled wine glass with water, covered top with plastic cover tightly, poked a hole in middle big enough that the nub fits and set plant on it. keep water level up. After a weekish I had a long root, planted it and plant is doing fantastic..I looked just the other day and there were 2 more small plants.. they are on wine glass now..what size pots for the small ones? Won't they grow somewhat? Thank you for reading my story/question!

Moldy soil

Submitted by Ellen Schmidt on July 3, 2020 - 10:07am

I have a healthy looking AV, but it’s soil has white mold growing on it. I keep the soil moist. What should I do about the mold?

Water 2 yr old AV from bottom but drainage water is BROWN.

Submitted by Becky T on May 28, 2020 - 5:05pm

I have a 2 year old AV (not re-potted) who is NOT happy. New growth around center starts then dies. Water which drains off is BROWN. Keep indoors year round and use a grow light. What is wrong with my plant?

Crown rot

Submitted by The Editors on May 29, 2020 - 3:35pm

It sounds like your plant has crown and root rot it could be planted too deeply, too wet (a common cause), or have poor drainage, which doesn’t sound like your plant. But too wet does sound right. The plant may be too far gone, but if it’s not–and you’ll know when you tranplant it– repot in sterilzed soil. AV s can be very finicky even though it seems like everybody else has such an easy time with them.

African violets

Submitted by Margaret Graham on May 16, 2020 - 7:15pm

The leaves on my african violet get almost clear in the stem and then the leaves seem to die and stem gets limp and whole thing drops off. I water from the bottom when soil is dry.Not showing any blooms

Large leaves

Submitted by Elaine Post on May 16, 2020 - 2:12pm

My violets, about five and ten years old, bloom fully and beautifully but the leaves have become very long and large. Should I repot? Are large leaves normal?

I’m having trouble with my

Submitted by Betty on May 10, 2020 - 10:23am

I’m having trouble with my violets having two plants come up side by side. Why is that and how can I just have one

African Violet question

Submitted by Carolyn Cox on April 23, 2020 - 9:49pm

My plant has grown nicely & has a large clump of flowers, but there is hardly any roots. The plant top is heavy and leans. What should I do to get the roots to grow deeper?

Deep Roots

Submitted by The Editors on April 24, 2020 - 1:44pm

Encourage the roots to grow deeper by water from the bottom of the pot rather than the top. Set the pot in the a saucer (if it isn’t already) and put water in the saucer the soil will soak it up. Remember to dump out any excess water from the saucer after the soil is sufficiently moist.

African Violets

Submitted by Steve Buck on April 15, 2020 - 10:23am

How often do you water African Violets?

Watering African Violets

Submitted by The Editors on April 16, 2020 - 3:35pm

There is no set schedule to watering—it all depends on factors like how warm and dry your home is, the time of year, how large your violet and its pot are, and the quality of the potting soil. Generally, the goal should be to keep soil moist—not wet—so this could mean that you need to water once a week or only once every few weeks. Over time, you’ll learn what’s best for your plants and can develop a schedule!

African violets

Submitted by Anna on April 14, 2020 - 7:39am

My African violet bloom looks exactly like a rose, would any of you be able to explain to me?

Double Flower

Submitted by The Editors on April 16, 2020 - 3:17pm

African violets come in range of varieties, including those with “double” flowers, which resemble roses!

How to correct growth?

Submitted by Jane Taylor on April 10, 2020 - 6:36pm

Hi, my violets were in a low light window for several months because of moving, home renovation etc, and now are leggy and leaves stretching out and upwards. They are now in a much better window- how would you reccomend correcting the growth if its possible? just wait until there is enough new growth and eventually snip off the older leaves? or is there anything quicker? thanks! Jane T

African violet propogation

Submitted by Cheryl on March 25, 2020 - 10:06am

my african violet has flowered, and one of the flowers has produced a small green tear drop shaped bulb-like growth in the middle of the flower. is this something i can use to grow more african violets?

Old Plant

Submitted by Lynne on March 7, 2020 - 6:26pm

I have had my grandmother African violet for at least 30 years. I have not idea how long she has had it. Tried to split one time and last one of the two splits. It is growing out of the pot now and working toward the top. The route is thick and crooked. What do I do with it. I am attached to this plant.

Rooting an African violet leaf

Submitted by PH. Spratt on March 6, 2020 - 12:30pm

I pulled some unhealthy-looking leaves from my African violet plant and placed the stems in water, not touching the leaves, with the hope they may root. And indeed they did! There are now roots and tiny leaves appearing in the water.

QUESTION: When/how do I transplant these new shoots into soil?

African violet

Submitted by Pat on February 25, 2020 - 2:04pm

When I repotted my violet, I must have planted it too deep because now the leaves are lying on the dirt. It is very hard to water because there’s only one small opening where I can get water in without touching the leaves. The plant is blooming beautifully so I’m afraid to touch it. Wondering if I should cut off lower leaves to expose base of plant. I use African violet plant food every couple of weeks or when I think it looks like it needs a boost. Lighting is perfect - East window. I rotate the plant every couple of days so all sides get the sun. Still the newest center leaves point straight up. Should I trim lower leaves?

African Violet Leaves

Submitted by The Editors on February 26, 2020 - 3:51pm

If the leaves still look deep green and healthy, there’s no reason to trim them off! As long as the leaves are allowed to air-dry and aren’t kepy continuously moist, there shouldn’t be an issue with getting a bit of water on them. If the leaves start to “melt” or discolor, then you can consider pruning the plant.


Submitted by Laura on January 1, 2020 - 9:56pm

I just received two African violets and I have several questions:
-does the pot need to have a hole on the bottom?
-the violets were during winter so the flowers are a bit brown and droopy, how does one give them a boost ?
-I have a self watering bulb, would you recommend using it or not?
Thank you

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