Queen of England and Ireland (7/9 / 1533-23 / 3/1603). Daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn, is born in Greenwich and spends his childhood out of court. In 1544, however, Parliament placed her in the line of succession after her brothers Edward VI and Maria I. After their death, Elizabeth ascended the throne in 1558.
Energetic and authoritarian, she definitively deploys the Anglican Church in England, persecuting Catholics and members of the Presbyterian sect of the Puritans. Fearing conspiracies, he imprisons Mary Stuart, his cousin and rival, Catholic Queen of Scotland, and has her beheaded in 1587.
This is a pretext for triggering a war between Catholic Spain, the most powerful empire of the time, and Protestant England, countries already waging trade disputes involving the colonies in the New World. When the Spanish fleet, called The Invincible Armada, is defeated by a storm off the English coast in 1588, England has the open road to establishing its own colonies and becoming a world power.
Elizabeth develops commerce and industry, institutes some labor laws, and encourages the revival of the arts, which flourish in her time. For a combination of personal and political reasons, Elizabeth I is reluctant to choose a husband and ends up not getting married, leaving her without heirs. On his deathbed, he indicates as successor Mary Stuart's son, James IV of Scotland, who becomes James I of England.