The story

American University returns 10,000 ancient tablets to Iraq

American University returns 10,000 ancient tablets to Iraq

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

In a move that has pleased many historians and archaeologists, Cornell University has forfeited their vast collection of cuneiform tablets , which detail daily life in ancient Mesopotamia, considered to be the cradle of civilisation. It is the largest return of antiquities by a U.S. university.

The 10,000 inscribed clay blocks date from the 4th millennium BC and provide detailed administrative records of ancient life, including the procedures for temple rituals, the resettlement of refugees and the output of agricultural lands.

One tablet in particular has provided a fascinating insight into the role of women in the ancient kingdom of Ur, an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia. The tablet describes a Sumerian princess, Simat-Ishtaran, who ruled an estate in the city of Garsana after her husband died, revealing that women were able to attain high status positions, supervise men, receive equal salaries and even work in construction jobs.

"It's our first real archival discovery of an institution run by a woman," said David Owen, the Cornell researcher who has led the study of the tablets. Because scholars do not know precisely where the tablets were found, however, the site of ancient Garsana cannot be excavated for further information.

The tablets were donated by the family of New York antiquities collector Jonathan Rosen to Cornell University in 2000. Many scholars have objected to the arrangement, suspecting the tablets were looted in Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War.

The Iraqi government requested the return of the tablets last year, and the U.S. attorney's office in New York is organising the transfer. "We're not accusing anyone of a crime, but we believe they should be returned," said Assistant U.S. Attorney Miro Lovric.

Other American universities have recently returned ancient artefacts after evidence emerged that the objects might have been looted. Last year, Princeton University returned about 170 objects and fragments to Italy and Ohio's Bowling Green State University said it was willing to return a dozen ancient mosaics to Turkey.

Cornell University hopes to continue its study of the tablets through cooperation with Iraqi institutions. "Study of these cuneiform tablets is providing much new data on the history, literature, religion, language and culture of ancient Iraq that is filling major gaps in our knowledge of Mesopotamian civilization," said David Owen.

    Is Iraq Getting Screwed in a Looted Treasures Deal With Hobby Lobby?

    A leaked proposed agreement between Iraq and the Hobby Lobby family’s Museum of the Bible is scandalously weak given the thousands of looted items involved.

    Candida Moss

    Photo Illustration by The Daily Beast/Getty/U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement

    In 2011, a shipment of between 200 and 300 small clay tablets destined for the Hobby Lobby compound in Oklahoma City, was seized by U.S. customs agents in Memphis. The tablets were part of a large purchase of 10,000 tablets, all thousands of years old, that were written in cuneiform, the script of ancient Sumer, Assyria, and Babylonia. These ancient Iraqi tablets were brought into the country illicitly and it was unclear if they had been legally acquired in the first place. The 2011 seizure set in motion a chain of federal investigations, civil forfeiture and repatriation agreements, and lawsuits that shone a harsh spotlight on the substandard collecting practices of Hobby Lobby and their owners, the Green family.

    Now, over nine years later, it appears that Hobby Lobby and Museum of the Bible, the museum founded and funded by the Green family, are close to reaching an agreement with the Iraqi government about the fate of the numerous items in their collections that are the rightful property of the people of Iraq. Among the illicit items in the collection were stolen papyri that belong to the Egyptian Exploration Fund, an ancient Egyptian papyrus purchased via eBay, thousands of cuneiform tablets from Iraq, and, most famously, the Gilgamesh Dream tablet.

    Last March, Steve Green, the CEO of Hobby Lobby and president of Museum of the Bible, told the Wall Street Journal that he plans to return 11,500 illicit Iraqi and Egyptian artifacts currently owned by the company or museum to their countries of origin. (He neglected to mention that the Gilgamesh Dream tablet had been seized on Sept. 24, 2019 by the Department of Homeland Security and Homeland Security Investigations or that he is required to do this by law). In a statement released in March 2020, Steve Green announced that, “We also hope to finalize agreements with organizations in Egypt and Iraq that will allow for us to provide technical assistance, and support the ongoing study and preservation of their important cultural property.”

    The problem? The proposed agreement with Museum of the Bible (MOTB) and Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc (HL) is a terrible deal for the people of Iraq. Nor is it necessary: Green has already promised to return their artifacts, and MOTB/HL are obligated to do with or without this agreement.

    The Daily Beast has received a copy of a draft of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Culture, Tourism, and Antiquities of the Republic of Iraq and HL/MOTB. (Despite MOTB’s repeated insistence that it is a separate organization and is not implicated in HL’s actions, they are both identified as “the second party” in the memo. Green appears as the signatory for both organizations). The memo draft is the product of ongoing negotiations between the two parties and thus no individual element of it can be firmly credited to either side. That said, it’s a shoddy deal for Iraq. So bad that the Iraqi people themselves have felt compelled to respond. An article published in an Arabic newspaper on Aug. 15 expressed grave concerns about the terms of this proposed memo calling it “exploitative and degrading.”

    The Daily Beast reached out to both MOTB and lawyer Thomas Kline, of Cultural Heritage Partners, who represents and advises them. Neither were able to verify the document we received but a MOTB spokesperson confirmed that “discussions are ongoing and appear to be proceeding in good faith." Multiple other sources confirmed authenticity of the document.

    The memo itself outlines the plan for the return of Iraqi cultural heritage, the process of identifying that heritage, and the money ($15 million) that MOTB/HL will use to fund “a program to help strengthen the institutional, technical, and human resource capacities of Iraq’s antiquities sector.” MOTB/HL also agrees to pick up the considerable tab on the costs of returning the artifacts to Iraq. In exchange, the Ministry of Culture, Tourism, and Antiquities agrees to loan some items to MOTB for up to five years allows MOTB to research and publish the antiquities in question and agrees not to sue MOTB/HL or the Museum’s donors about anything at all that has happened up until this point. To be very clear, if Iraq was to sign this memo as originally written they would be giving up their legal rights to damages.

    The Daily Beast has consulted with experts in Iraqi archaeology, international law, and art crime about this document. Here are some of the problems they identified with it.

    Many parts of the agreement are just basic things that MOTB/HL has to do to comply with the law and yet in exchange it is mandating that Iraq loan valuable parts of its cultural heritage to the museum. Dr. Zainab Bahrani, the Edith Porada Professor of Art History and Archaeology at Columbia University and an Iraqi by birth, told me: “Hobby Lobby has to return these looted objects to Iraq anyway. Iraq is not obliged to send them loans for their museum as part of the deal, or to let them conserve objects, and to renounce any future challenge of things in their collection. Why would anyone in Iraq ever agree to this? I do not see how this MoU is at all beneficial for Iraq, for the Iraq Museum, or for the [State Board of Antiquities and Heritage].”

    Professor Patty Gerstenblith, a world-leading expert on cultural heritage and director of DePaul’s Center in Art, Museum and Cultural Law, who advised Green about Hobby Lobby’s practices in 2010, echoed those concerns and said, “I think Iraq is giving up more than it will gain through this proposed MoU, as it was originally proposed, and I do not think its interests are being well served.”

    The $15 million promised to the Iraqi government is insufficient. The money, Bahrani pointed out, is for MOTB to provide training courses for Iraq Museum staff but are they the right people for the job? “It is a matter of public record,” Bahrani said “that this company and its museum have been involved in the illicit trade in antiquities, and that scholars associated with it have participated in destructive practices with ancient artifacts that would be condemned by the international community of scholars and scientific conservators who are experts in this field.”

    As Joel Baden and I wrote in our book Bible Nation, the prioritization of biblical artifacts over non-Christian cultural heritage led to unnecessary irrevocable damage to Egyptian artifacts. Is MOTB really in a position to train anybody about conservation when not so long ago their representatives were dissolving Egyptian funerary masks on the stove while watching football games?

    Beyond the irony of positioning themselves as conservation experts and teachers, the agreement is very vague about the specifics of the administration of these funds. Erin L. Thompson, professor of art crime at John Jay College (CUNY) and author of a book on the history of private collecting of antiquities, said, “If this agreement is signed, MOTB/HL gets to put out a press release saying they’re donating $15 million to protect Iraqi antiquities” but “There’s no time frame specified… The agreement does not specify who gets the money, [and] under this wording, they could pay American consultants to train Iraqi museum staff, for example, with none of the money actually going to Iraqis.” All of money could be spent financing visas and paying for the travel expenses and meals of American consultants.

    Thompson added that while $15,000,000 sounds like a lot of money, it’s actually not. “We will never know the extent of the damage caused by the looting of Iraqi archeological sites undertaken to produce the thousands of artifacts purchased by Hobby Lobby, but I am confident that this damage, to Iraq and to the world, was far, far greater than $15 million.”

    In the past some academics have defended and even championed efforts to keep Iraqi artifacts in the U.S. so that they can study them. In 2018, David Owen, a professor of Near Eastern studies at Cornell University who has published descriptions of hundreds of (looted) tablets from the lost city of Irisagrig, called for Hobby Lobby’s tablets to remain in the United States. “Once they enter the bowels of the Iraq Museum,” he told LiveScience, “it is unlikely scholars will ever have access to them, nor are there any Iraqi scholars capable of publishing them given the many thousands of unpublished texts already in storage in the museum for generations and mostly inaccessible to scholars.”

    Beyond the dismissive comments about the skills and capabilities of Iraqi academics (for the record, Eckart Frahm, a professor of Near Eastern languages and civilizations at Yale University, publicly disagreed with Owen on this point) this statement is no more true for Iraq than it is the U.S. or U.K. In the 19th century, British academics used arguments about how “no one is as good as [the British]” in order to justify the export of the priceless Oxyrhynchus collection to the U.K. For the past century these papyrus fragments have been housed at the University of Oxford. Not only were the fragments vulnerable to theft, a very small proportion (between 1 percent and 5 percent) of them have been published so far and only select scholars are allowed to access and work on this collection.

    MOTB has similar problems access to their collection is restricted to members of their Scholar’s Initiative (formerly the Green Scholar’s Initiative), the composition of which was governed by shared religious commitments. This is not to say that these scholars are unqualified, on the contrary there are many brilliant individuals working for Museum of the Bible, but the museum’s collection is not and has never been open to all. None of these situations are ideal, but if anyone has the right to tightly control access to and publication of the cultural heritage of Iraq, surely it is those who own this heritage—the Iraqi people?

    Many parts of the agreement appear to be PR spin or toothless unenforceable promises. As one Iraqi researcher told The Daily Beast, the discussion of intellectual property rights to the objects is strange when ancient tablets do not have property rights attached to them. Photographs, copies, and publications of the antiquities, on the other hand, do have intellectual property rights but those rights aren’t under full discussion in this document. Nor does the memo guarantee that the process of collaboration will include Iraqi academics as co-authors on any future publications.

    Similarly, a clause about cooperating with the Iraqi government to identify other antiquities that belong to the people of Iraq in the MOTB/HL collections is, Thompson said, “a meaningless promise that serves no other purpose than looking good when quoted in a press release.” It is illegal to import into the United States any archaeological material illegally removed from Iraq. “This clause is nothing but self-congratulation for following laws that the Museum of the Bible and Hobby Lobby are already obligated to follow—and which they have repeatedly broken. You don’t get to issue press releases patting yourself on the back for cooperating with a murder investigation—you’re simply obliged to do so!”

    One of the strangest elements of the memo is the discussion about the Gilgamesh Dream Tablet. It is the only named object in the putative agreement, but it doesn’t belong to nor is it in the custody of HL/MOTB. It was seized by the U.S. government last September and is currently owned by it. HL/MOTB and Iraq are negotiating about a renewable five-year loan of an object of which neither has custody. The U.S. government has a history of returning artifacts to their rightful owners, even when diplomatic relations are fraught. The 2013 return of a silver ceremonial drinking vessel to Iran, for example, actually helped thaw diplomatic relations between the two countries. If Iraq signs an agreement to loan the tablet to MOTB, it may in fact slow the return of the tablet. In fact, given that the loan is renewable, the Gilgamesh Dream Tablet might never make it home.

    Arguably the most disturbing part of the memo is that it releases MOTB/HL and donors to MOTB from any and all past liabilities relating to “Iraq.” The donors that the MOU probably has in mind for this blanket release of responsibility are the Green family, the owners of Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc, who oversaw the importing of illicit antiquities in the first place and are MOTB’s biggest donors. But that’s not what the MOU says. It just reads that donors will be released from “any and all demands, causes of action, liabilities, obligations, damages or claims of any kind whatsoever… which Iraq may have” against them. As Thompson told The Daily Beast “if Iraq signs this agreement and finds out that someone once donated $10 to the Museum of the Bible and then killed an Iraqi citizen, or embezzled from the Iraqi government, it has agreed not to prosecute them.”

    Thompson told me that she believes that the agreement as written is much too broad, but says, “Even if you interpret the immunity as applying just to antiquities, I interpret this as asking [Ministry of Culture] to release MOTB/HL from any liability for other looted antiquities that may still be discovered in their collections. This is asking for a get out of jail free card, valid no matter what wrong-doing is discovered.”

    In the past there have been examples of governments working together with museums who have had to return looted antiquities to the benefit of both parties. For example, the Getty Museum worked with the Greek and Italian governments in ways that were mutually beneficial. This, however, is something altogether different. Thompson, who is the nation’s foremost academic expert on art crime, told me: “The proposed agreement is an attempt to bully Iraq into surrendering their legal rights in return for a payment that, even if it goes to Iraq, is in no way commensurate with Iraq’s losses. I am also concerned that it would set a horrible precedent. Unscrupulous collectors will believe that if they are caught, they can escape all punishment by dangling promises of a payout to countries under the pretense of helping them preserve the antiquities that the collectors haven’t already managed to loot.”

    In a statement on Monday, a Museum of the Bible representative told The Daily Beast, “ Museum of the Bible Chairman Steve Green and museum staff have been in discussions with Iraqi embassy staff regarding the cultural heritage of Iraq since fall of 2019, after earlier meetings in 2017. Recently, there was a meeting with Dr. Nazim to continue those discussions. The museum has elected to legally return the artifacts that do not meet its acquisition standards, has recently done so, and seeks to support research, exhibitions, and technical assistance projects with Iraq. The details of these plans have yet to be finalized, though we anticipate that to occur soon. The museum is not aware of any previous or pending legal action on the part of Iraq.”

    A statement issued by the Ministry of Culture last week stated that the memo has not yet been signed or agreed upon. It is, thus, still subject to change. The statement added that the Iraqi government would not give up its rights to recover its property. Negotiations are ongoing, let’s hope this remains the case and that the Iraqi government does not reach an agreement that gives away the proverbial farm.

    Programme details

    1. The land of Mesopotamia

    • Physical geography of Mesopotamia
    • Northern Mesopotamia
    • Southern Mesopotamia
    • The Flood
    • From village to town

    2. Uruk: The world's first city

    • Tell Brak
    • Cities of the south
    • Mass production
    • The art of Uruk
    • Uruk expansion
    • The decipherment of cuneiform
    • Forms of recording: Tokens, bullae, tags, tablets
    • Uruk tablets
    • Cylinder seals
    • Scripts and languages
    • Sumerian city-states and their gods
    • Sumerian gods and goddesses
    • Temples
    • Votive objects
    • Nippur: Enlil and Inana
    • The Sumerian King List
    • Kish and the origins of kings
    • The Standard of Ur
    • Umma-Lagash border dispute
    • Gilgamesh: The perfect king
    • Houses for the living and the dead
    • Graves at Kish
    • Royal Graves at Ur
    • Queen Puabi and sacrificial victims
    • The Netherworld
    • Syria: The Royal Palace at Ebla
    • Indus Valley civilisation: Seals and writing
    • Ancient Egypt: Kingship and burial
    • Trade and exchange in the Persian Gulf
    • Iran: Religion and ritual at Susa

    8. The world's first empire

    • A Semitic dynasty
    • Sargon&rsquos children
    • Naram-Sin
    • The art of Akkad
    • The end of Akkad
    • Gudea of Lagash
    • Ur: The seat of kingship
    • Tombs and foundation inscriptions
    • Shulgi&rsquos reforms
    • The end of empire
    • The Sumerian legacy
    • The rise of Babylon
    • Mari
    • Hammurapi of Babylon
    • The law code of Hammurapi
    • The modern destruction of Mesopotamia

    We strongly recommend that you try to find a little time each week to engage in the online conversations (at times that are convenient to you) as the forums are an integral, and very rewarding, part of the course and the online learning experience.

    ISAW Library makes donation to the American University in Iraq, Sulaimani

    This summer, the ISAW Library donated several hundred books to the American University in Iraq, Sulaimani (AUIS). Located in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, about 175 miles east of Mosul, the AUIS was founded in 2007 as a not-for-profit institution dedicated to providing a comprehensive, student-centered liberal arts education on the American model. The school has grown to 1,600 students, and offers undergraduate degrees in Business Administration, Information Technology, International Studies, Engineering, and English and Journalism. The university also houses the Center for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (CACHE), which advances the study of antiquity in Iraq in general and the Kurdistan Region in particular, and the Institute of Regional and International Studies (IRIS), which fosters multidisciplinary inquiry into issues facing the Kurdistan Region.

    Over the last decade, the ISAW Library has acquired or received donations of entire libraries of several individual scholars, and in the process has acquired a number of duplicate volumes, as well as materials outside the scope of the Institute. In light of ISAW's academic mission to support the study of the ancient world, the Library has committed itself to placing as many such volumes as possible at institutions where they are likely to have a profound and lasting scholarly or pedagogical impact. In doing so, we make a special effort to place books with institutions like the AUIS, which train future generations to interpret, value, and preserve the cultural heritage of antiquity around the globe.

    The AUIS Library was founded in 2009 and has relied largely on donations for building its collection. The titles in ISAW's donation were selected by members of the AUIS faculty, including Lynn Rose, Frederick Monsma, and Tobin Hartnell. Among the nearly 300 items in this shipment were a number of titles on the history of the Ancient Near East, as well as materials on Classical, East Asian, and European history and archaeology. This was ISAW's second donation of books to the AUIS, following a similar shipment in 2015. We hope that the materials in this donation will be of use to students and researchers at the AUIS for generations to come.

    American University returns 10,000 ancient tablets to Iraq - History

    UFOs and Extraterrestrials in Art History

    The Historical Record of Planet Earth speaks of ongoing contact with extraterrestrials as found in oral traditions, tablets, stone monuments, petroglyphs, and art forms found throughout the planet. Many of these images could also be lenticular clouds.

    Reptilian looking entities found in Iraq - 5,000-4,500 BC.

    Sumerian Gods

    Art Exhibit British Museum #52

    Sumerian Gods - Scroll Through The Images

    Figurines, Lizard-headed or Ubaid Style, clay, Ur (Ubaid culture), 5th millenium BCE, h:13.6 cm From the Ubaid - Southern Mesopotamian Period, 5000 BCE - 4000 BCEFound in Ur. The Ubaid culture succeeded the Halaf at the end of the 6th millenium BCE in southern Iraq, then spread throughout Mesopotamia. Ubaid culture is known for painted pottery large houses of tripartite plan for extended families and lizard-headed figurines of both male and female gender. Figurines such as the above examples are typical. The figure on the left holds a baby on her hip and suckles it. The figure on the right has incised stretch marks on her abdomen. It has been suggested that the brown-painted dots and lines represent tatoos, and the clay pellets scarring. It is unknown if the shape of the skulls represents actual head-binding.Similar Lizard-headed figurines have been found at Eridu. Collon, Dominique. Ancient Near Eastern Art. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995, pg 46.

    7,000 B.C. - The Lolladoff plate, discovered in Nepal, appears to show a hovering disk-shaped object in the center and a small being, resembling an alien resembling an alien gray, beside it. The circular pattern is reminiscent of the spiraling movement of consciousness - Sacred Geometry of creation.

    This cave painting is circa 10,000 BC and is from Val Camonica, Italy.
    It appears to depict two beings in protective suits holding strange implements.

    1465 - Cigar shaped UFO - flaming girder seen in the sky during the reign of Enrico IV
    From Notabilia Temporum by Angelo de Tummulillis

    Strange suited figure found in Kiev.
    It dates to ca. 4,000 BC.

    7000 year old petroglyph discovered in the province of Queretaro, Mexico in 1966. There are 4 figures with outstretched arms below a large oval object radiating what appear to be beams of light.

    Ancient Figures in Space Suits

    United States - Native Americans

    Petroglyphs dating back thousands of years ago by ancient Indians in the American Southwest. According to Indian folklore, two objects collided high in the sky and one crash-landed in the region of Death Valley. Some men arrived (presumably in another ship) and spent some time repairing the damaged craft and were observed by the local Indians. The two images below may possibly depict the ship (left) used by the men who came to repair the damaged craft. In comparing the two images, the one on the right seems to depict structural damage around the edges and the bottom. Could it be the one that allegedly crashed? The images are stills taken from an old TV series entitled "In search of. " hosted by Leonard Nimoy.

    Sego Canyon, Utah. Estimated up to 5,500 BC.

    Tassili n'Ajjer, Sahara Desert, North Africa

    Sahara rock art is a significant area of archaeological study focusing on the precious treasures carved or painted on the natural rocks found in the central Sahara desert. There are over three thousand sites discovered that have information about Saharan rock art. From the Tibesti massif to the Ahaggar Mountains, the Sahara is an impressive open-air museum containing numerous archaeological sites.

    Tassili n'Ajjer (meaning "Plateau of the Rivers") is noted for its prehistoric rock art and other ancient archaeological sites, dating from Neolithic times when the local climate was much moister, with savannah rather than desert. The art depicts herds of cattle, large wild animals including crocodiles, and human activities such as hunting and dancing. The art has strong stylistic links to the pre-Nguni Art of South Africa and the region, executed in caves by the San Peoples before the year 1200 BCE.

    The range's exceptional density of rock art paintings-pictograms and engravings-petroglyphs, and the presence of many prehistoric vestiges, are remarkable testimonies to Neolithic prehistory. From 10,000 BCE to the first centuries CE, successive peoples left many archaeological remains, habitations, burial mounds and enclosures which have yielded abundant lithic and ceramic material. However, it is the rock art (engravings and paintings) that have made Tassili world famous as from 1933, the date of its discovery. 15,000 petroglyphs have been identified to date.

    Some of the painting have bizarre depictions of what appear to be spacemen wearing suits, visors, and helmets. resembling modern day astronauts. This takes us to the west African tribe - the Dogon whose legends say they were guided to the area from another part of Africa that was drying up - by fish gods called the Nommo who came in huge ships from the sky.

    Two cave paintings from Tanzania. Both are estimated to be up to 29,000 years old. The one on the left is located in Itolo and depicts several disc shaped objects. The other painting is from Kolo shows four entities surrounding a women. Notice also the entity looking down from inside some sort of box or object.

    A wood cut from 1479 Arabia shows the appearance of a rocket ship complete with rivet and metal and pointed front with stars gleaming in the background.

    Wandjina petroglyphs from Kimberley, Australia.
    About 5,000 years old and may represent alien beings.
    Gods - Link Between Australia and Egypt

    This is an old Chinese illustration from a fictional book entitled "Illustrated Survey of Weird Countries" (c.1400 A.D.) and had the following original caption: "Ji Gung Land: The people could make flying cars that travelled far with a suitable wind. In Tarng's day (c.1700 B.C.), Ji Gung people flying a car on a westerley reached Yew Jo. Tarng dismantled their car so it could not be demonstrated to the people . Later an east wind came on which he had them fly the car back to their own country [5,000 km] west of our gateway."

    This is an artistic reproduction of a relief found in a labyrinth on the island Jotuo in the Toengt'ing lake. An expedition took place in 1957 (two years before an earthquake in that region). The expedition was led by professor Tsj'i Pen-Lai. They found various reliefs showing "humans" in strange clothes which looked like astronaut suits (hose like objects attached to the clothes). They also found a painting which apparently resembled the solar system. The third and fourth circle (planet) were connected with a line. Also there were ten planets (excluding the sun as planet). This connects easily to the theories about Nibiru, planet X, etc.

    Illustration depicting a sighting of a burning wheel in the year 900 over Japan.

    This is a tapestry called Summer's Triumph It was created in Bruges in 1538 and presently resides at the Bayerisches National Museum. You can see several disc shaped objects at the top of the tapestry.

    A wood cut found in Nurnberg Germany in 1561 depicts a large dark missile with a many others like it in the sky. Also depicted are globes, cylindrical space ships, and the sun. Many believe it shows humans witnessing a battle between aliens that was later recorded on the wood cut.

    Illustration depicts a sighting by two Dutch ships in the North Sea of an object moving slowly in the sky. It appeared to be made by two disks of different size. The source for this account is one of the books entitled Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by Admiral Blaeu. These books were compilations of articles by different authors and consisted of detailed accounts of long engagements at sea, cartography information, etc.

    In France there was a coin minted in 1680 that shows a hovering disc shaped UFO with what appears to be port holes or lights around the outer rim. Due to the fact that a coin was minted depicting this UFO.

    This picture shows a UFO sighting over Hamburg, Germany
    The objects were described as 'two glowing wheels' or UFOs
    November 4, 1697

    Renaissance illustration of a UFO sighting in Rome detailed
    in a book by Roman historian Julio Obsequens.

    Anunnaki Wristbands - Wristwatches - The Watchers - The Shining Ones

    They are used for communication, teleportation, recording the human experiment, among other things.

    In this painting found on a wood drawer from furniture kept at the Earls D'Oltremond, in Belgium, Moses is depicted receiving the tablets of the Ten Commandments, with "flaming horns." Several equally flaming objects are in the sky before him. The date and artist are unknown.

    Jesus and UFOs in Religious Art

    Were the UFOs depicted in the paintings monitoring events on Earth?

    A disk shaped object is shining beams of light down on John the Baptist and Jesus - Fitzwilliam Musuem, Cambridge, England - Painted in 1710 by Flemish artist Aert De Gelder. It depicts a classic, hovering, silvery, saucer shaped UFO shining beams of light down on John the Baptist and Jesus. What could have inspired the artist to combine these two subjects?

    Baptism of Christ by Rogier van der Weyden (12th Century)

    Baptism of Christ by Ottavio Vannini c. 1640

    Baptism of Christ by Fra Angelico c. 1425

    17th century fresco of the crucifixion
    Svetishoveli Cathedral in Mtskheta, Georgia
    Note the two saucer shaped craft on either side of Christ.

    Painted by Paolo Uccello - circa 1460-1465

    Frescos throughout Europe reveal the appearance of space ships. This 1350 painting seems to depict a small human looking man looking over his shoulder at another flying vehicle. His vehicle is decorated with two twinkling stars, one reminiscent of national insignia on modern aircraft. This painting hangs above the altar at the Visoki Decani Monestary in Kosovo, Yugoslavia.

    "Glorification of the Eucharist" - by Bonaventura Salimbeni in 1600

    Today it hangs in the church of San Lorenzo in San Pietro, Montalcino, Italy.
    What does the 'Sputnik satellite-like device' represent?

    John the Baptist by Leonardo Da Vinci

    A fourteenth century fresco of the Madonna and Child depict on the top right side the image of a UFO hovering in the distance. A blow up of this fresco reveals tremendous details about this UFO including port holes. It seems to indicate a religious involvement between UFO's and the appearance of the Christ Child.

    This painting is called "The Madonna with Saint Giovannino". It was painted in the 15th century by Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-1494) and hangs as part of the Loeser collection in the Palazzo Vecchio. Above Mary's right shoulder is a disk shaped object. Below is a blow up of this section and a man and his dog can clearly be seen looking up at the object.

    "The Assumption of the Virgin"

    Painted circa 1490 by an unknown artist.

    Saucer shaped "clouds" intrigue modern ufologists. Could so many have appeared in the sky at one time? Or, are the hat shaped UFOs depicted so numerous here to -punctuate- certain events as being particularly holy?

    The Life Of Mary - 14-15th Century Tapestries

    1330 - "The Magnificent" - Notre-Dame in Beaune, Burgandy

    "The Annunciation with Saint Emidius" (1486) by Carlo Crivelli

    It hangs in the National Gallery, London.

    The picture above depicts Jesus and Mary and either UFOs or lenticular clouds. The painting is entitled "The Miracle of the Snow" and was painted by Masolino Da Panicale (1383-1440) and hangs at the church of Santa Maria Maggiore, Florence, Italy. The bible references flying objects that were perhaps UFOs many go back to Flood Stories.

    Trinity Test Eyewitness Accounts

    Declassified eye-witness accounts of the Trinity nuclear test echo the ancient descriptions of the brahmastra . L.W. Alvarez was sitting between the pilot and co-pilot of a B-29 flying roughly 25 miles from the blast site. He said, “Intense light covered my field of vision, after which I noted an orange-red glow. The cloud started to push up, appearing as a parachute being blown up by a large electric fan .”

    Ten miles from the blast, witness Enrico Fermi reported, “ I had the impression that suddenly the countryside became brighter than full daylight. ” Technician Kenneth Griesen , also ten miles from the site, saw “ a brilliant yellow-white light all around. A tremendous cloud of smoke was pouring upwards, some parts having brilliant red and yellow colors, like clouds at sunset.

    Phillip Morrison reported that “ what I saw first was a brilliant violet glow. Immediately after this brilliant violet flash, I observed an enormous, brilliant disk of white light, a color much whiter, and several times brighter than the noon sun .”

    Artifacts spanning 10,000 years on display at new Penn Museum exhibit


    John Kaplan finally returned his copy of 'To Kill A Mockingbird' to Mount Pleasant High School after he originally checked out the book on May 9, 1975. 4/20/18

    Buy Photo

    Penn Museum's new Middle East Galleries charts the story of humans on the move from early farming settlements to complex cities and emerging empires. (Photo: Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal) Buy Photo

    It began with a footprint on a mud brick, left to bake in the sun more than 4,000 years ago.

    That same brick was used to construct the Mesopotamian city of Ur — located in what is now southern Iraq, a part of the world that bore witness to humanity's greatest early innovations.

    The Penn Museum's Middle East Galleries, unveiled last week, consist of more than 1,200 artifacts spanning 10,000 years. More than half of the items have never before been on public display.

    From paper-thin coins that paid homage to individual rulers to a child's first writing primer using wedge-shaped cuneiform signs, the stunning collection was gathered over two dozen excavations of a broad region between the Mediterranean Sea and the highlands of Afghanistan, from the Black Sea to the Arabian Peninsula.

    It's a story of humans on the move from early farming settlements to complex cities and emerging empires. And while it's technically ancient history, the development of adaptive, albeit primitive, technologies is still relevant to modern urbanites, according to Dan Rahimi, executive director of galleries at the Philadelphia museum.

    "What's remarkable about this story," he said, is that "by 2700 BCE, about 80 percent of Mesopotamians lived in cities. Today, 81 percent of U.S. citizens live in cities."

    "What can we learn from the past?"

    For one, we can learn how to ward off the evil eye.

    Among the more curious items on display are incantation bowls, also known as demon or magic bowls, dating to the fifth century. Used by Jews and Christians alike, these shallow bowls were decorated with chained demons and inscriptions in Aramaic and Hebrew to trap nefarious spirits or fend off illness. The owner would bury them face-down under a door threshold or at the corners of a home.

    An incantation bowl, also known as a demon or magic bowl. (Photo: Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal)

    Next, check out the palm-sized cuneiform map of Nippur, Iraq. Those aren't chicken scratches. They're meant to depict the locations of fields bounded by canals.

    Developed by the Sumerians starting around 3500 BC, the clay tablet is their version of the modern-day iPad. It's presented next to a flimsy Septa map of Philadelphia.

    Among the other exhibition highlights:

    • One of the oldest-known wine vessels, a 2.5-gallon jar from Iran circa 5400-5000 BC
    • A tablet containing writings by the first named author in history, Enheduanna, a high priestess in Ur who penned hymns around 2300 BC
    • A large dish decorated with images of quail and red flowers, made in Japan around 1700 but with an Arabic inscription to cater to an Iranian clientele via the Dutch East India Company
    • A blue-enameled terra cotta slipper coffin, featuring nude female figures and rope ornaments, which was used for burials of Parthian city dwellers of Nippur about 2,000 years ago
    • An elaborate headdress, consisting of willow leaves of gold, beads of lapis lazuli and carnelian and a gold comb, that was buried with Sumerian Queen Puabi circa 2450 BC. Puabi's royal tomb was uncovered more than 80 years ago during a joint excavation by the Penn Museum and the British Museum led by British archaeologist Leonard Wooley. Next to the tomb sat "The Great Death Pit" of six men and 68 women who were bludgeoned to death after committing to serve their queen in the afterlife. A flattened skull of one female attendant is on display.
    • Interactive stations introduce visitors to the lifestyles of an ancient merchant, priest and craftsman.

    Founded in 1887, the Penn Museum, also known as the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, spent $5 million outfitting its three Middle East Galleries. Previously, some objects were housed in an upstairs gallery or used in traveling exhibitions.

    Penn's new Middle East Galleries exhibit paper-thin coins that paid homage to individual rulers and a child's first writing primer using wedge-shaped cuneiform signs. (Photo: Jennifer Corbett, The News Journal)

    The project is the first in a series of re-imagined galleries under the museum's ambitious $102 million fundraising campaign. New Africa galleries are scheduled to open later next year.

    In the meantime, visitors to the Middle East Galleries can marvel at masterpieces of prehistoric technology assembled by 10 curators.

    Penn organized the first American excavation to Nippur in 1888. The archaeologists' camp was raided, robbed and burned, but the objects they uncovered became part of the museum's founding collection. Native Iraqis and Syrians are scheduled to give weekend tours of the Middle East galleries through next month.

    While there, check out the Penn Museum's special exhibition, "Cultures in the Crossfire: Stories from Syria and Iraq," which runs through November. It includes documentary film clips, a range of Arabic manuscripts, contemporary artwork and more than 50 objects from the region.

    American University returns 10,000 ancient tablets to Iraq - History

    Reconstruction: The Hanging Gardens of Babylon (Iraq)

    A lot of wild speculation in metaphysical circles these days concerns the possible return of Planet X, a mysterious roaming planet that swings to the far side of our solar system, and is expected to return to our part of the solar system soon. In Sumerian mythology, Planet X is called “The Lord” and is the home of a group of beings that the bible calls Shining Ones. According to my interpretation of Sumerian myths presented in my book Ark of the Christos: Thee Mythology, Symbolism and Prophecy of the Return of Planet X and the Age of Terror, these wise beings, the ‘angels’ of the Old Testament, wielded enormously advanced technology.

    They operated a (star) gateway linking Heaven and Earth. They genetically altered the human body as a “resurrection machine” of “soul flower” to operate in conjunction with this gateway. They possessed the secret science of alchemy, the transmutation of the elements, through which they could create weapons of mass destruction and advanced human beings.

    The Shining Ones of Planet X were last here in 3760 B.C., which is the time of Anu’s, the ruler of Planet X’s, last visit. In a morning- time ceremony in which Anu departs Earth, E.A. and Enlil, two sons of Anu, await Anu at what is called the “golden supporter.” They hold several objects: “that which opens up the secrets” (most certainly the Egyptian Key of Life), “the Sun disks,” and the “splendid shining posts.” The “golden supporter” device is sheathed in a golden skin.

    Anu and his wife, Antu, stand before the golden supporter, which can only be the golden Pillar or Tree of Life, a 45- foot tall device lined with a gold alloy the Egyptians said could ‘drill’ holes in space. This device (left) was mounted on a platform that resembles in form and likely function the Ark of the Covenant.

    The device comes alive, the gate swings open and Anu and Antu enter the Abyss (sometimes called the Fish of Isis).

    Anu entering the gateway to return to Planet X?

    Incredibly, Sumerian scholar Zecharia Sitchin has recovered what may be depictions of this scene. In this scene (right) we see two people flanking an entrance to a gateway in which a third person makes an entrance (or exit). The sun and moon symbols can be seen above this gateway.

    The two guards hold devices, long poles with circular tops, which Sitchin concludes served an astronomical purpose. He also equates them with golden pillars at the entrance to Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem. 1

    This being so, can we see these devices as “golden needles”? Is the story of this golden needle woven deep into the mythology of the ancients? Is the ‘silver thread’ woven by this needle actually a wormhole linking Earth with the Planet of the Lord?

    While it is uncertain if Planet X is headed this way in the immediate future, one thing is certain. The return of this planet centers on the recovery of a technology once housed at Solomon’s Temple that is used to open a gateway linking Earth with far off regions of space.

    Recent military and political activity suggests that the world powers are jockeying for position as if the return of Planet X is imminent.

    The stakes are high. This planet is at the center of a biblical prophecy known as the “Day of the Lord.” The man in the catbird seat of this milieu is Saddam Hussein, the mass-murdering Iraqi dictator with the Cheshire cat smile.

    Sitchin, one of the few experts on Planet X, indicates that, according to prophecy, the last time Planet X was visible was in the 6th century B.C. The “Day of the Lord” (the return of Planet X) occurred c. 550 B.C. when prophecies said that Planet X was visible. 550 B.C. is an extraordinary date. In 576 B.C. the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar looted and leveled the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem, took three temple wise men hostage, and as I will detail momentarily, appears to have negotiated a deal with these temple priests to open a gateway to Heaven.

    As the book of Daniel describes, 2 he put the three wise men from the Temple of Solomon into a “fiery furnace.” When they reappeared not only were they in pristine condition, they were not alone. They had the Son of God in tow.

    I have interpreted this ‘fiery furnace’ as a zone of frequency or vibration that is the mouth of a stargate or a wormhole . When the three wise men entered this gateway they traveled to a distant place, possibly to the center of our Milky Way galaxy, or possibly to Planet X, and returned with the Son of God. This remarkable story is of far greater significance in the Age of Terror than most realize.

    It is well known that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein has connected himself with Nebuchadnezzar, spending over $500 million during the 1980s on the reconstruction and the re-establishment of ancient Babylon, the capitol of Nebuchadnezzar. Over sixty million bricks have been made to place in the walls of Babylon, each engraved with the inscription,

    “To King Nebuchadnezzar in the reign of Saddam Hussein”.

    In essence, as has been widely reported by prophecy watchers and international news organizations alike, Saddam is saying he is the reincarnated Nebuchadnezzar. He is attempting to recreate and outdo the feats of the biblical king. As we shall see through this investigation, Saddam controls an asset infinitely more important and powerful than oil, or even, nuclear weapons. He controls access to the temples that housed the history humanity’s origins, and potentially, the secrets of stargates.

    Buried deep beneath the sand s of Iraq are the secrets of the Shining Ones of Planet X. Saddam’s actions reveal that he knows the political value of these secrets. Before exploring the eye-opening story of Nebuchadnezzar’s opening of a stargate it is important to lay a foundation for this event.

    Saddam is currently engaged in a massive program to convert Iraq into a “Disneyland of the ancient Shining Ones” (my term). Included in this program is the recreation of ancient Sumerian temples dedicated to the Shining Ones, the copying of ancient cuneiform tablets concerning the Shining Ones, and the retrieval of ancient Babylon’s famed Ishtar Gate from Berlin.

    One of the most startling antiquities moves Iraq is set to launch is a campaign to “revive” the Ashurbanipal Library, the earliest systematically collected and catalogued library in the ancient world. 3 This was the library of the king who said he could read the texts from before the Flood!

    Excavated by British archaeologists in the mid 19th century at Nineveh, the 25,000 cuneiform tablets assembled by King Ashurbanipal are almost all now in the British Museum. These include the famous 7th-century BC Flood Tablet, which relates part of the Epic of Gilgamesh and contains the “backstory” to the account of the flood given in the Book of Genesis.

    In April 2002 Iraqi archaeologists asked the British Museum if it would allow casts to be made of the cuneiform tablets. Although individual tablets have in the past been copied as casts, this would be the first time that any substantial number had been made. British Museum keeper John Curtis, who received the request during his visit to Baghdad last month, told The Art Newspaper that “the museum would do its best to cooperate.” 4

    The proposed reconstructed library at Nineveh would hold copies of all of the British Museum’s tablets, and it is planned as both a scholarly center and tourist attraction. Alongside the library, the Saddam [Hussein] Institute for Cuneiform Studies will be set up as part of the University of Mosul. Plans are also being made to excavate one of the wings of King Ashurbanipal’s palace, in Kuyunjik Mound, where it is hoped that thousands of other tablets lie buried.

    There are 10,000 archaeological sites scattered through the country, most of them not fully excavated. In Iraq historical monuments are a matter of national security. This is because they mark the locations of the secrets of the Shining Ones.

    It’s absolutely impossible to get close to the legendary ziggurat of Ur without a letter of authorization. Ur, the Biblical city of the Chaldeans, is the land of the prophet Abraham, father of the three great monotheist religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

    What is presented as the ruins of his house from around 4000 BC can also be seen near the ziggurat. The ziggurat was re-engineered by Nebuchadnezzar. A monumental staircase - rebuilt by order of Saddam Hussein - allows the visitor to ascend to the second stage. The facade of the ziggurat still bears traces of American bombing during the Gulf War - or “Mother of All Battle s” as it’s known in Iraq.

    According to archaeologists, gang leaders sometimes drive through provincial towns with trucks and shovels, recruiting people to dig at poorly guarded sites. 5 What are they after? As in the example set by a recent robbery the monument robbers want knowledge. Thieves smashed the doors of an Iraqi museum and a glass display case, absconding with cuneiform tablets and cylinders from the 6th century B.C. They left behind gold jewelry that might have tempted amateurs. Cylinders from the 6th century B.C. are more valuable than gold for the information they record.

    The looting began in the tumultuous immediate aftermath of the Gulf War. In the Kurdish areas of northern Iraq, and the southern area populated by Iraq’s restless Shiite Muslims, most of the provincial museums were ransacked. Iraqi authorities charge - and their accusations are backed up by some archaeologists abroad - that Sumerian antiquities are smuggled out of the country by diplomats and U.N. relief workers.

    Last summer, a landlord was cleaning out a Baghdad villa that had been recently vacated by a diplomat. Inside, he found two cartons of archaeologist fragments. The Iraqi government hasn’t named the diplomat or his country. Saddam believes he is to unite the Arab world under Islam.

    By recreating ancient Babylon, and by uncovering and disseminating the texts from ancient Iraq he can simultaneously duplicate the feats of Nebuchadnezzar and potentially pull the intellectual rug out from underneath Judaism and Christianity. The pre-history of both of these religions is found in Iraq. Saddam controls the temples that housed the “back story” of Judaism and Christianity. He seeks to retrieve the rest of the story and destroy these religions.

    If Saddam launches a storm of ancient knowledge it could turn current biblical scholarship into gumbo, and release a potentially debilitating thought virus into the Global Mind. This may explain why the pace of archaeological work being done by in Iraq is increasing from the little activity of the past decade due to the ongoing international crisis over Baghdad’s weapons programs and the economic effects of sanctions.

    Saddam assuredly knows that the release of documentation proving Judaism and Christianity as derivatives or copies of an ancient Sumerian religion could have a devastating effect on global affairs. Millions of people who partake in the Christian ceremony of communion may be surprised to learn that this procedure is derived from an alchemical teaching of E.A., the god of wisdom of ancient Sumeria, modern-day Iraq.

    An expedition sponsored this past winter by the Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut (German Archaeology Institute) in Berlin sent a team of researchers to make a partial map of a buried Mesopotamian city using a magnetometer. The sensitive instrument is able to detect the presence of man-made objects beneath the soil and reveal the remnants of walls, canals, and residential districts. (see below report).

    The team zeroed in on the legendary city of Uruk, immortalized in a famous Sumerian epic poem -- “The Song of Gilgamesh.”

    The poem, which today is the earliest surviving work of literature, tells the story of a Sumerian hero, Gilgamesh, whom many researchers believe may have been one of Uruk’s early kings. In the story, Gilgamesh goes in search of the Stairway to Heaven and the Abode of the Gods.

    According to prophecy, additional primary targets of Saddam’s duplication of Nebuchadnezzar’s feats involve London, New York and Egypt. Each of these locations is home to obelisks known as “the images of Bethshemesh”. These “images” are referred to in Jeremiah 43:9-13. Bethshemesh (literally “House of the Son God”) is in the land of Egypt. “The houses of the gods of the Egyptians shall he burn with fire,” says Jeremiah.

    “Bethshemesh, that is in the land of Egypt” is the city of Heliopolis, which is 6 miles NE of Cairo, Egypt. It was the center of an ancient cult of an Egyptian Sun of God, who was symbolized by the phoenix or heron. Heliopolis was the location of the Temple of the Phoenix (or heron), the Egyptian sun god and savior. The symbolism of the phoenix or heron was later attached to Jesus, including the hieroglyph for the heron , which was duplicated in the fish symbol of Jesus

    Something of profound significance appears to reside at Heliopolis. Located just across the Nile from Giza and the pyramids, Heliopolis was the center of Egyptian religion. It is a place of enormous mystery. In the Bible the name given to Heliopolis was “On” or “An.” Sumerian texts record this is also one of the names of Planet X, and was derived from “Anu,” the name of the ruler of Planet X. 7

    The Greek Heliopolis means “City of Helios,” literally the “city of the sun god Helios” (“light of life”) 8 being the sun/son of An or Anu. Heliopolis, An, or Tula, as it was also known, became the center for the priesthood of the sun god, Ra, sometime around 3350 BC. 9

    Thutmose III originally erected the obelisks of Heliopolis about 1500 BC. Thuthmosis III is known as the ‘Napoleon of ancient Egypt’. Historians note that his martial accomplishments matched precisely the impressive resume of the biblical King David, the ancestor of Jesus, and father of King Solomon. His rulership would witness the founding one of the most mysterious dynasties in all Egyptian history, a dynasty that included such illustrious names as Akhenaton and Tutankhamun. According to Laurence Gardner, it was also Tuthmosis III who established a mystery school of the original Rosicrucians, the Essene Therapeutate – meaning ‘physicians of the soul’. 10 The Essenes later adopted this name.

    If Tuthmosis III was the original biblical ‘King David’, as some scholars now suspect, 11 this would mean that the descendents of David, including Solomon and Jesus, would have carried the ’sang azure’, the royal blue blood of the Pharaohs. The obelisks in New York and London are the property of this family. In this profound scenario, Jesus, who came from the Royal House of David, potentially emerges as one of the last, if not the last, of the Egyptian Pharaohs. 12

    If the Davids were a group of people (possibly pharaohs) it would not be easy for them to simply disappear. Is there any evidence of their continued influence in worldly affairs, even as absurd as it sounds, in the affairs of America?

    As it turns our there is evidence of the pharaohs continued existence as the Celtic Druids. Scholars debate the origins of the word Druid. In Gaelic druidh means ‘wise man’ or ‘instructor’. This is another appellation of the Shining Ones. Larousse’s World Mythology says Druid came from daru-vid, meaning ‘skilled’. One art in which the Druids were highly skilled was the transmutation of the elements. One classical scholar from the third century, Diogenes Laertius, said the Druids were the cult of the Magi, the sect of the Three Wise Men who sought out the Christ child Jesus. Does the Druid connection to the line of David explain why they sought the Christ child?

    It was at Heliopolis that the Pyramid Texts were discovered. The Pyramid Texts are hieroglyphic writings written on the walls of the pyramids that contain the instructions for the rebirth and resurrection of the pharaohs. It was also a center of an alchemical priesthood that guarded the secrets of transmuting the elements. Nebuchadnezzar’s expedition into Egypt gave the ancient fulfillment of this prophecy. However, modern fulfillment of this prophecy will be seen in New York City and London.

    The “images of Bethshemesh” (43:13) are literally, the “obelisks of Heliopolis”. These obelisks are also known as Cleopatra’s Needles. Cleopatra’s Needles are two ancient obelisks presented by the khedive of Egypt to Great Britain (1878) and the United States (1880). Each weighs about 200 tons and stands about 70 feet tall. The British installed their obelisk on the Thames (River) Embankment in London (1878).

    The Americans installed their obelisk in Central Park in New York City (1881). Jeremiah prophesied the destruction of these obelisks by the “king of Babylon”. 13

    The concern the United States must contend with is that this modern Nebuchadnezzar can obtain nuclear weapons - almost at will - through the Russian or Chinese black market. According to the blueprint provided by biblical prophecy, he may choose to use these weapons against these three targets. The primary target is Jerusalem. Nebuchadnezzar is the only foreign invader to destroy Jerusalem. Saddam believes he must match him.

    The United States and Israel is prepared to use nuclear force against Iraq if necessary.

    Revelation 18:21-23, in fact, tells of the future and utter annihilation of the City of Babylon ,

    “And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all. And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee"

    Bible prophecies concerning Babylon’s destruction have not yet been fulfilled. Isaiah 13:19 says,

    “And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees’ excellency, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah.”

    Isaiah’s “burden” for Babylon, in chapter thirteen also included a terse warning:

    “Howl ye for the day of the LORD is at hand it shall come as a destruction from the Almighty,” (verse six).

    Sodom and Gomorrah were erased from the map by a premeditated and preventable thunderbolt from the sky of atomic proportions. In a scene reminiscent of the obliteration of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, at dawn one morning, as Abraham looked upon the valley below, fire came down from “the Lord out of heaven.” 22 “The smoke of the land went up like the smoke of a furnace” 23 Sodom and Gomorrah were gone.

    God promised Israel that they would someday take up this taunt against the King of Babylon (Saddam Hussein?), “How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased!” (Isaiah 14:4.)

    Here, the utter destruction of the city of Babylon is linked to,

    1.) God’s overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah (a blast of light from heaven) and

    2.) the Day of the Lord (the return of Planet X).

    If and when such an event took place, every thing Saddam has rebuilt could suddenly reduce to vitrified green glass that no one could even go near for thousands of years.

    As we can see, Saddam is a far more complex figure than the comic book head of the ‘axis of evil’ presented on the evening news. He is a man in search of himself and the alchemical secrets of the ancient past. He may also be in a race against time.

    If Planet X is due to make a rendezvous with Earth in the near future he does not have much time.

    Let us now turn the ultimate quest of this man: the duplication of Nebuchadnezzar’s stargate encounter. Nebuchadnezzar’s stargate encounter began in 576 BC when he conquered Jerusalem, 14 flattened its walls, stripped Solomon’s Temple of all its treasure 15, set the city ablaze, and returned home to Babylon with the treasure of the Temple 16 and a group of royal prisoners of war. 17

    The Temple priests supposedly were forewarned before the attack. To save the Ark of the Covenant the priests took it to ‘Solomon’s Vault’ beneath the Temple, sealed themselves inside, and committed ritual suicide so no one would know where they hid it.

    Nebuchadnezzar also took captive thousands and thousands of Jerusalem’s citizens, including the holy men at the Temple, and forcibly moved them to Babylon, the ruins of which are buried beneath the sands of Iraq about twenty miles from modern-day Baghdad. During this Babylonian Captivity many strange things happened.

    Included among the captives were three wise men from the Temple, a young man and ‘master magician’ named Daniel, and another prominent prophet, Ezekiel (who had visions of ‘the kingdom of Heaven on Earth’ while imprisoned in Babylon and later left the planet in what many consider to be a starship). Surprisingly, the Jews discovered that the Babylonians possessed long sought answers concerning their past. This is because the Jewish and Babylonian histories emerged from the same original source in Sumeria.

    From the Sumerian stories the Hebrews found missing pieces to their own Flood story and story of Creation. With a few name changes here and there both traditions match. Most scholars now believe it was here in Babylon during the captivity of Nebuchadnezzar that the first five books of the Old Testament, including Daniel and Ezekiel, were constructed (with a lot help from the original Sumerian stories). Most Christians are shocked to learn the stories that form the foundation of their religion are copies of original stories that belonged to another time, place and people. Only the names have been changed.

    As important as it is to realize the context in which these books were assembled -- the captivity of their authors -- it is more important to realize that they are a compilation of actual history, mythology, literary devices and fond memories of a past that never was Hebrew, but Sumerian. Separating Hebrew from Sumerian is crucial.

    The original stories provide valuable and accurate knowledge. The marriage between the Sumerian and Hebrew mythologies was a match made in heaven. It was as if each carried the missing half to the other’s message. What both sides apparently wanted was access to the stargate of the Shining Ones. This was the gift of the gods of Planet X. As we shall see, Nebuchadnezzar’s story bears this out.

    On entering ancient Babylon the visitor passed the E-mah, the temple of the mother goddess Ninmah or Ninharsag, which has recently been restored by Saddam. 18 E-mah is a highly significant word. It is the Hebrew word for ‘terror’. Beyond the Emah was Babylon’s most important temple, the Esagila, the dwelling-place of the sun god Marduk, the Babylonian name for Planet X. Nebuchadnezzar says that he covered its wall with sparkling gold in order to make it shine like the sun.

    In this temple was found a chapel or sanctuary for Marduk’s father, E.A, whom Zecharia Sitchin upholds as the genetic engineer responsible for the creation of humanity.

    Second only to Nebuchadnezzar’s famous Hanging Gardens Babylon’s most famous monument was the staged tower or ziggurat, Etemenaki, ‘the house that is the foundation of heaven and earth’, situated north of Marduk’s temple.

    The Marduk temple housed the golden image of Bel (‘the Lord’) and a strange golden table, which combined weighed nearly fifty thousand pounds of solid gold! Nebuchadnezzar’s Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

    Growing on a huge seventy-five-foot high artificial seven-stage mountain known as of the fantastic ziggurat of Marduk, the well-known Tower of Babel, which Nebuchadnezzar restored, the Hanging Gardens could be seen for fifty miles across the flat desert. The seven terraces held trees, vines and flowers and were watered by a system of wells and fountains. King Nebuchadnezzar had this wonder built for his queen who longed to return to her mountain homeland.

    Babylon must have been a spectacular, perhaps unbelievable, sight to Daniel and the rest of the Jewish captives, sort of like placing a war-torn refugee child in Disneyland today. In its glory the city of Babylon was the greatest city in Mesopotamia -- the center of the new world order. It was a veritable playground for the gods. Babel originates from the word Bab-li, which in the Babylonian language meant ‘Gate of God’.

    This is our first tip-off that Nebuchadnezzar attempted to construct a means -- perhaps even a stargate -- to transcend earth life and travel the cosmos. Our primary interest is in the image of gold Nebuchadnezzar set-up in Babylon. 19

    This isn’t some ancient status symbol the king kept on his desk. The image is a massive three score (60) cubits high and six cubits wide. A cubit is 18 inches, making the image 540 inches high (three score or thirty times 18 inches high). 540 inches is 45 feet high, about the size of a four and a half story building! Undoubtedly, this massive structure could be seen from miles around.

    Nebuchadnezzar could not make this gleaming image (the Pillar of Osiris) work. This was a major failure. Like the tribal leader David, who ruled Jerusalem five hundred years before him, the king had planned to unify his kingdom, and the golden image was the unifying force. He tried using music to get it to work. He demanded that when the people heard the music play they were to fall down and worship the golden image (as if this act would impress the lifeless heap). 20

    If they didn’t they would be tossed into a burning fiery furnace. 21

    Nebuchadnezzar acknowledged that Daniel had immense prophetic gifts, including the ability to interpret dreams. In chapter four of Daniel, he is asked to interpret a dream in which Nebuchadnezzar saw:

    ‘a tree in the midst of the Earth, and the height thereof was great. The tree grew, and was strong, and the height thereof reached into heaven, and the sight thereof to the end of the Earth’. 22

    There was great fruit in this tree and the birds of Heaven lived in its branches. From this tree the king saw a “watcher” and a “holy one” from Heaven emerge.

    They told him to destroy the tree, and leave its ‘stump’ in the Earth. This was a confusing dream to the king, but not to us. The “watchers” is another name for the Shining Ones . It is also the Egyptian name for “divine being” or “god” NTR, or neter, which means “one who watches”. Neter-neter land is the name of the place in the stars where these beings dwell.

    Sumeria , another earthly land of the Shining Ones, was known as the land of ‘ones who watch’.

    Why didn’t the Watchers want Nebuchadnezzar to join them in Neter-neter land (Peter Pan’s Never Never Land)? Could it be that it was because Nebuchadnezzar was not one of them (but Daniel was, which explains why he could interpret their symbols)? What did they mean by leaving the ‘stump’ of the ‘tree’ in the ground? Nebuchadnezzar wanted to know. Did this dream foretell disaster of a project represented by the tree? If so, what is the specific project that is in danger?

    The answer to this question is found in the fact that Old Testament scholars universally agree that Daniel was compiled over a long period of time and does not represent the visions of one particular person. Daniel (‘God is my judge’) was not a personal name. The question who or what then is the Daniel takes on paramount importance.

    In her Woman’s Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, 23 Barbara Walker answers this question by saying ‘Daniel’ was a title used to distinguish a group of people, “a person of the Goddess Dana or Diana”. Dana was Jacob’s daughter, his 13th child. Her name means ‘light of An’. There’s your trouble.

    That is exactly the same meaning as the Celtic Tuatha De’Danann (‘Children of the Goddess Diana’). In Irish history, the mystical Tuatha De’ Danann, are described as heaven-sent ‘gods, and not-gods’.

    They are compared with the Sanskrit deva (shining one, god) and adeva (Devil), which became daeva (devil) in Persian. The Old English divell (devil) can be traced to the Roman derivative divus, divi: gods. As we have seen, divas also links with terror.

    These connections are important not only for their value in decoding the story of Daniel, but also for another important reason. According to Sir Laurence Gardner, Mary Magdalene, as the Miriam , was the Head Sister of the Order of Dan. 24 Her order appears to be the continuation of the mysterious Tuatha De’ Danann.

    Mary or Mari’s title ‘Magdalene’ means ‘she of the temple-tower’, a reference to Jerusalem’s temple and its three towers. 25 Ultimately, as Nebuchadnezzar’s story continues, along came three wise Jews from Jerusalem. 26 Unfortunately for Nebuchadnezzar, they refuse to worship the hulking image or the god of the Babylonian king. What is more, the three insult Nebuchadnezzar by betting the king that their god will save them from the fiery furnace. 27

    Clearly, the three wise men from the Temple of Solomon possess crucial knowledge that Nebuchadnezzar needs to make this golden gadget work. He was successful in firing up the fiery furnace component of the ‘image’. But beyond that he was stuck. He needed the ‘open sesame’. What is this gadget, this golden image of which I speak? This holy object is likely the Axis Mundi, the Pillar of God.

    If it is correct to associate Pillar with the forty five-foot ‘tree’ bearing the ‘great fruit’ of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, it now makes perfect sense why Nebuchadnezzar would wish to involve Daniel in this project. It was the sons of the Shining Ones of D’Anu, the people of Daniel, who had originally brought this device to Earth. The angel who appeared to the king was related to the Daniel. There is no way in hell they would want Nebuchadnezzar to enter their realm uninvited.

    In the story from Daniel the three wise men refuse to spill the beans to Nebuchadnezzar, what is undoubtedly the ‘open sesame’ to open the (star) gateway.

    Furious, the king orders that the three be cast into the ‘fiery furnace’. 28

    “The three men put on their coats, their hats and their other garments, and were cast in the midst of the burning fiery furnace” says Daniel 3:21. “Their coats, their hats, and their other garments,” you say? This is an immensely meaningful statement.

    Why put on any clothes at all if your body is about to be translated into a toasted marshmallow by the fiery furnace? These garments turn out to be more than just standard-issue loungewear at the Temple of Solomon or the garb of hostages in Babylon.

    That is, if they turn out to be anything like the coat, the hat and the other garments the goddess Mari is wearing in The Goddess with a Vase discovered at her temple at Mari in 1934.

    Mari is shown wearing her Shugurra helmet (‘a hat’). Literally translated Shugurra means ‘that which makes go go far into the universe’. 29 It may be more than coincidence, or sheer poetry, that Shu-gurr-a resolves to Sgr A, the name of the radio source believed to lay at the exact Core of our galaxy. Also resident at the Galactic Core is a black hole. It is possible this is also the “helmet of salvation” described in Ephesians 6:17.

    Mari also wears a heavy full- length coat and other garments. This coat is called the PALA garment. This entire get- up is fantastically similar in description to that described in chapter 6 of Ephesians. There, in addition to the “helmet of salvation,” spiritual questers are encouraged to “put on the whole armor of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the Devil.

    For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.” 30

    The principalities and powers are the angelic spiritual forces that work as heavenly governors and messengers in the heavenly realms (i.e. galactic beings). This is exactly the angelic level of the Shining Ones. Apparently, some of these are harmful creatures that seek to attach themselves to human souls. At Armageddon, Jesus promises to send his angels to sever the wicked from among the just. And then shall cast them (both?) into the fire. 31

    Does the “armor of God” uniform here described -- including the Shugurra Helmet of Salvation and the PALA coat -- simultaneously help to protect us from harmful spirits, and make the cosmic connection with a stargate? It appears so, for Ephesians next describes a person standing in front of the Ark of Covenant, the soul-transportation device that opens this fiery furnace! We know this because the person is wearing the Breastplate of Righteousness. Their feet are “shod with preparation for the Gospel of Peace.”

    Above all they take the shield of faith, the Helmet of Salvation and the (S)word of the Spirit, which is the word of God. All of these appear to be necessary for soul travel through the stargate to Tula.


    What happens to those who don the “armor of God” get-up and walk through the fiery furnace? Where do they go? Through the black hole?

    This detail is omitted. However, after the three wise men from Solomon’s Temple entered the fiery furnace, Nebuchadnezzar and all the king’s men cautiously approached the lethal furnace. He asks that the three men appear to him. When they do, the king (and I’m certain all the assembled) stands utterly astonished.

    He’s expecting nasty flamebroiled corpses. Instead, he sees the three wise men are in perfect condition! “Did we not cast three men bound into the midst of the fire?” asks the baffled king. 32 He certainly did. To add to the high strangeness of this event, a fourth person now accompanies them!

    However, this is not just any man. Nebuchadnezzar believes this fourth man is an angel. Not just any angel either. The fourth man is like the Son of God! 33 Is this Jesus, the Son of God? Is Nebuchadnezzar telling us the three wise men returned from their stargate travels with Jesus in tow five hundred years before his appearance in the New Testament?

    It is quite conceivable because, understandably, at this point Nebuchadnezzar was convinced: the god of the three wise Jews is the God. He proclaims that if anyone speaks against this God, he will cut them to pieces, and their houses will be made into dunghills. 34 Next, he promoted the three wise men.

    The Bible does not say what happened after this Son of God arrived. I believe, however, that tremendous knowledge must have been gained from his appearance. This knowledge is capable of altering the balance of power in the world. If Saddam Hussein truly believes himself to be Nebuchadnezzar, he most certainly would be interested in acquiring this knowledge, which is among the highest secrets of the Shining Ones.

    In Ark of the Christos I take a closer look at this exotic occurrence, and the possible stargate knowledge gleaned from this episode. Understanding the science of stargates makes one a master of the laws of nature. It also provides one the capability of manufacturing weapons systems that make nuclear weapons look like firecrackers in comparison.

    This is just one more reason Saddam is in the crosshairs of the world.

    American University returns 10,000 ancient tablets to Iraq - History

    • offers a treasury of teaching units, lesson plans, and resources.
    • presents the human past as a single story rather than unconnected stories of many civilizations.
    • helps teachers meet state and national standards.
    • enables teachers to survey world history without excluding major peoples, regions, or time periods.
    • helps students understand the past by connecting specific subject matter to larger historical patterns.
    • draws on up-to-date historical research.
    • may be readily adapted to a variety of world history programs.

    World History for Us All is a national collaboration of K-12 teachers, collegiate instructors, and educational technology specialists. It is a project of the National Center for History in the Schools, a division of the Public History Iniative, Department of History, UCLA. World History for Us All is a continuing project. Elements under development will appear on the site as they become available.

    Provenance: How an object's origin can facilitate authentic, inclusive storytelling

    Archivists assess, collect and preserve various artifacts and archive them to better understand their origin and cultural heritage.

    University of Missouri-Columbia

    IMAGE: Buchanan's provenance research includes digitizing ancient clay tablets for public use. view more

    Credit: University of Missouri

    COLUMBIA, Mo. -- Passports are a tangible way of showing where one has traveled, as the stamps provide a chronological order that traces an individual's journey across international borders. When an object's origins are not readily apparent, a variety of sources can be relied upon to learn more, which might include labels, sales receipts, foreign translations, oral histories, GPS coordinates and itemized personal possessions.

    That documentation is an example of provenance, or the origins of an object and where it has traveled throughout history. Sarah Buchanan, an assistant professor in the University of Missouri's College of Education, is an archivist, a professional who assesses, collects and preserves various artifacts and archives them to better understand their origin and cultural heritage.

    With a three-year grant, Buchanan is investigating ways to conduct provenance research more efficiently, inclusively and transparently, both on MU's campus and abroad. In a recently published study, Buchanan collaborated with Sara Mohr, a doctoral student at Brown University who reads and translates Assyrian, to create an online bibliography and corresponding map of ancient tablets located in universities throughout the United States, including six tablets inside MU's Ellis Library.

    The tablets were written in cuneiform, the first writing system ever used by humans. It was first developed by the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia around 3,200 B.C.E in modern-day Iraq. Written on clay tablets, the writing system was used to document things like trade, business and religious activities at ancient temples.

    "We identified cuneiform tablets at Brown University that complement the six we have here at Mizzou, and when we look at all of them together, we have a fuller, more compelling story about the societal context of their creation," Buchanan said. "If we only look at ours, it is like reading a page of a book that is half cut out. Their combination shows how powerful digitizing these artifacts can be, as it allows us to analyze two tablets side by side online that are otherwise thousands of miles apart."

    The importance of provenance extends well beyond cuneiform tablets. Buchanan's research also includes studying rare books and manuscripts, audio recordings, Native American and indigenous collections, artwork, photos, and videos.

    "Provenance shapes the stories that are told about objects and their owners," Buchanan said. "Artifacts and archives are a form of our history. They shed light on our cultural heritage that roots us as humans in where we have been and where we are going."

    Museums can use provenance to assess the authenticity of collections on display. In Washington, D.C., officials from the Museum of the Bible accepted donated antiquities, including alleged fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls-- ancient Jewish manuscripts with significant religious ties to the Hebrew Bible and Judaism-- that turned out to be fake.

    After suspicions that the fragments were created recently, an investigation by independent researchers, which was funded by the museum itself, confirmed in November 2019 that all of the displayed fragments were modern forgeries.

    "Unfortunate situations like this show why provenance research is so important, as there is a real accountability issue when artifacts, photographs or artwork are found to be doctored or forged," Buchanan said. "This work will help give a wider range of artifacts a clearer provenance so that we can be sure when pieces are exhibited in museums, that they truly are what we say they are and can be attributed back to a specific time and place."

    Provenance can also help play a role in repatriation, or the return of a valued item to its place of origin. In 2018, Bowling Green State University announced that ancient mosaics housed in the university's Wolfe Center for the Arts purchased in good faith with the belief that they were excavated from ancient Antioch had actually been looted in the 1960s from Zeugma and later sold on the black market.

    After years of talks between the university and the Turkish government, the 12 mosaics were returned to Turkey, where they are now on display at the Zeugma Mosaic Museum, the largest mosaic museum in the world.

    "As archivists, we are tasked with determining how, where and when these historic objects traveled across land and time," Buchanan said. "Traditionally, institutions tend to display only items that have clear provenance. As we refine our methods of researching provenance, we will be able to narrate a greater number and variety of previously unstudied artifacts and share them with new audiences."

    Because America's history is closely intertwined with immigration and the oppression of minority groups, provenance research can help archivists tell more complete stories -- the good, the bad and the ugly -- surrounding artifacts with murky history.

    "Provenance can help us confront our history when it comes to topics like war, colonialism and land acknowledgments," Buchanan said. "By uncovering a greater number of artifacts, we can properly tell more stories so that more cultures are represented, particularly the cultures of traditionally marginalized groups like Native Americans."

    Through conversations with Native American tribes, Buchanan has learned the power of collaboration and civil discourse in facilitating more inclusive storytelling.

    "There is always the potential for repatriation," Buchanan said. "However, we have also learned that several Native American tribes are open to particular artifacts remaining here at Mizzou's Museum of Anthropology, where climate controls and procedures are in place to properly care for the artifacts."

    As a professor in the College of Education's School of Information Science & Learning Technologies, Buchanan teaches graduate students in the archival studies emphasis of MU's Master of Library and Information Science program.

    In 2018, she supervised graduate students in the program as they inventoried and digitized audio recordings with KOPN, a community radio station in Columbia, Missouri. The recordings cover interviews with political figures such as Angela Davis, and social topics such as the feminist movement in the 1970s. The collection of recordings was recently featured by GBH, the NPR radio affiliate in Boston, and the Library of Congress in March for Women's History Month.

    "This grant will help us get tools into the hands of archivists so we can be more responsive to our communities and make our collections meaningful to their work." Buchanan said.

    As technology has advanced, the value of provenance in documenting ownership of rare items has transferred to the digital world online. Non-fungible tokens, or NFTs, have become increasingly popular and raised more than a few eyebrows in mainstream media. They are digital tokens attached to online items such as videos, photos or artwork that document their authenticity and original ownership, a clear way to show that they have not been altered or faked.

    "I am passionate about teaching the next generation of archivists," Buchanan said. "Studying cuneiform in America is just the tip of the iceberg. The more we learn going forward, the better we can tell stories about a wide variety of items' origin in a clear and compelling way."

    Editor's note: "A Bibliography of Cuneiform Tablet Editions in United States Colleges and Universities through 2020" was recently published in the Journal of Open Humanities Data. Funding for the study and Buchanan's Early Career Development grant was provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services. The cuneiform tablets located in Ellis Library can be viewed and read further here.

    Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

    Watch the video: ΕΠΕΙΣΟΔΙΟ ΨΥΧΡΟΥ ΠΟΛΕΜΟΥ: Σε απόσταση αναπνοής Ρωσικό και Αμερικανικό αντιτορπιλικό (August 2022).