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Spangler DE-96 - History

Spangler DE-96 - History

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(DE - 96: dp. 1,400; 1. 306'0~; b. 37'0~; dr. 13'6~; s. 23.6 k. (tl.); cpl. 213; a. 3 3, 6 40mm., 3 21 tt.; cl.Buckley)

Spangler (DE - 96) was laid down on 28 April 1943 by the Defoe Shipbuilding Co., Bay City, Mich.; launched on 15 July 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Myrtle Spangler; and commissioned on 31 October 1943, Lt. Comdr. W. A. Burgett in command.

After shakedown in the vicinity of Bermuda, Spangler joined a convoy on 24 December 1943 and headed tor the Pacific via the Panama Canal. She arrived at Bora Bora, in the Society Islands, on 20 January 1944 There she received orders to rendezvous with convoy Task Unit 116.15.3 as the flagship of Commander Escort Division 39 and to head for Espiritu Santo New Hebrides Islands. In mid-February, she escorted Shasta (AE-6) to Purvis Bay, Florida Island, in the Solomons, and then took up patrol station off Guadalcanal two days later. After escorting Alnitah (AK 127) to Torokina Point on Bougainville, she rounded out the month patrolling off Blanche Harbor, Treasury Island, and off Purvis Bay. For the next three months, Spangler escorted convoys on shuttle runs between various islands in the South Pacific. During that period, she visited Guadalcanal, Espiritu Santo, New Caledonia, Florida Island, Majuro, Emirau, Rendova, and Manus.

In late May, Spangler sailed from Tulagi to the Admiralty Islands with a supply of hedgehog depth charges for England (DE - 35), Raby (DE - 98), and George (DE - 97). She rendezvoused with the three ships at Manus on the 27th, delivered her cargo, and the four ships sortied the next day to join a hunter/killer group formed around Hoggatt (CVE-75). The task group was steaming north during the waning hours of 30 May when Hazelwood (DD-531) made a sound contact on the Japanese submarine, RO-105. While England and Spangler headed toward the southern end of the scouting line, Raby and George charged to the attack. Both ships attacked the enemy, but with no apparent success. During the night, they lost contact with the submerged enemy However, after a few hours, the Japanese commanding officer obligingly surfaced between Raby and George and switched on his searchlights. England and S~angler raced toward the shaft of light which fixed RO-105's position for them perfectly. By 0500 on the 31st, they were in contact with Raby and George, and with the Officer in tactical command IOTC). At first light, Raby and George each attacked the Japanese sub in quick succession. When their efforts failed, Spangler joined the fray. She attacked with 24 depth charges, but without success. England's full pattern of depth charges at 0735 brought a huge explosion and a watery grave to RO-105.

On 2 June, the ships joined Task Group (TG) 30.4 and returned to Seeadler Harbor at Manus. Spangler continued to operate with Hoggatt Bay until the 21st, when she headed for Purvis Bay and overhaul. From the completion of overhaul in late July until the end of September, the destroyer escort operated out of Purvis Bay on escort assignments and antisubmarine warfare training. During that period, she called at Guadalcanal, Espiritu Santo, Barika Island, Tulagi, Eniwetok, Tarawa, and Hollandia. In October, Spangler became station ship at Funafuti in the Ellice Islands. However, she was so employed only briefly and soon returned to Purvis Bay and escort duty and, for the remainder of 1944, screened ships shuttling to Kossol Passage, Ulithi, and Guam.

Spangler's base of operations was changed to Guam on New Year's Day 1945. She was assigned to escort duty on the Guam-Ulithi supply route and the additional duty of hunter-killer operations. Over the next three months, she escorted and patrolled as a part of the Marianas-Iwo air-sea rescue unit. From 26 April to 27 May, she served as station ship at Saipan; then she returned to her screening station off Guam until the end of the war. On 4 September, after returning to Guam from Okinawa, Spangler got underway, in company with Raby, and headed back to the United States. The two destroyer escorts stopped at Pearl Harbor on 22 September; then continued on to San Pedro, Calif., for overhaul.

After overhaul, Spangler departed the west coast on 20 February 1946 to return to the western Pacific, via Pearl Harbor and Guam. She remained in the Far East for the next five months and, during the deployment, visited the Chinese ports of Swatow, Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Tsingtao. Spangler put in at Okinawa on 19 November and remained until 1 February 1947, when she got underway in company with Osmus (DE-701) and Currier (DE-700) to return to the United States.

Spangler entered San Diego on 2 March 1947 and, for the next eight and one-half years, operated out of that port along the California coast. During those years, she often visited Long Beach and San Francisco and made five voyages to Hawaii and one to Acapulco, Mexico. On 4 October 1955, the destroyer escort departed San Diego for the western Pacific. She stopped briefly at Pearl Harbor and at Midway, and made Yokosuka, Japan, on the 22d. Spangler was deployed for six months, during which time she visited Sasebo, Japan; Hong Kong; and Subic Bay in the Philippines. She left Yokosuka on 13 March 1956 and after stops at Midway and Pearl, reached San Diego on 31 March. With the exception of one short trip to Long Beach and back in mid-September! Spangler spent the remainder of 1956 in port at San Diego.

On 3 January 1957, the destroyer escort again headed westward from San Diego. This voyage took Spangler on a tour to many of the places made famous over a decade before; among her ports of call were Kwajalein Atoll and Auckland, N.Z., in January; Manus in the Admiralty Islands in February, Guam in February and March; and Corregidor, Manila, and Singapore in April. She also visited Yokosuka, Japan; Sattahip, Thailand; Hong Kong; Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Sasebo, Japan, Chinhae, Korea; and Kobe and Beppu, Japan. On 20 June 1957, Spangler headed homeward from Yokosuka. She returned to San Diego on 7 July and, for the next 15 months, operated along the west coast. On 8 October 1958, Spangler was decommissioned at Astoria, Oreg., and joined the Columbia River Group of the Pacific Reserve Fleet. She remained in reserve until 1 March 1972, when her name was struck from the Navy list. Her hulk was sold on 20 November 1972 to Zidell Explorations Inc., of Portland, Oreg., for scrapping.

Spangler (DE-696) earned two battle stars during World War II.

German submarine U-96 (1940)

German submarine U-96 was a Type VIIC U-boat of the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during World War II. Her keel was laid down on 16 September 1939, by Germaniawerft, of Kiel as yard number 601. She was commissioned on 14 September 1940, with Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock in command. Lehmann-Willenbrock was relieved in March 1942 by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Jürgen Hellriegel, who was relieved in turn in March 1943 by Oblt.z.S. Wilhelm Peters. In February 1944, Oblt.z.S. Horst Willner took command, turning the boat over to Oblt.z.S. Robert Rix in June of that year. Rix commanded the boat until February 1945.

  • 769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
  • 871 t (857 long tons) submerged
  • 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
  • 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull
  • 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
  • 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
  • 2,800–3,200 PS (2,100–2,400 kW 2,800–3,200 bhp) (diesels)
  • 750 PS (550 kW 740 shp) (electric)
  • 2 shafts
  • 2 × diesel engines
  • 2 × electric motors
  • 8,500 nmi (15,700 km 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h 12 mph) surfaced
  • 80 nmi (150 km 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h 4.6 mph) submerged
  • 230 m (750 ft) : 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
  • 5 × 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four bow, one stern)
  • 14 × torpedoesor 26 TMA mines
  • 1 × 8.8 cm (3.46 in) deck gun (220 rounds)
  • 1 x 2 cm (0.79 in) C/30 AA gun
  • Kriegsmarine: (Training) (Front Boat, 11 patrols) (Training) (Schoolboat)
  • Eleven
  • 1st patrol: 4–29 December 1940
  • 2nd patrol: 9–22 January 1941
  • 3rd patrol: 30 January – 28 February 1941
  • 4th patrol: 12 April – 22 May 1941
  • 5th patrol: 19 June – 9 July 1941
  • 6th patrol: 2 August – 12 September 1941
  • 7th patrol: 27 October – 6 December 1941
  • 8th patrol: 31 January – 23 March 1942
  • 9th patrol: 23 April – 1 July 1942
  • 10th patrol: 28 August – 5 October 1942
  • 11th patrol: 26 December 1942 – 8 February 1943
  • 27 ships sunk for a total of 181,206 GRT
  • Four ships damaged for a total of 33,043 GRT
  • One ship a total loss of 8,888 GRT

During autumn 1941, war correspondent Lothar-Günther Buchheim joined U-96 for her seventh patrol. This experience was the basis for his 1973 bestselling novel Das Boot, which was adapted into the 1981 Oscar-nominated film.

Ned Spangler, taken from a larger set of depictions of the conspirators
Of what was Edman Spangler guilty? Tried together with seven others accused in the Lincoln Conspiracy, York native Edman “Ned” Spangler was not found guilty of conspiring to murder the president. The military commission found him guilty only of aiding and abetting John Wilkes Booth’s escape from Ford’s Theater.
Was he guilty even of that charge, or only guilty of having the charismatic Booth as a friend, a friendship that mostly benefited Booth, since Ned took care of Booth’s horses and did other errands for him?
Ned proclaimed his innocence from prison and kept proclaiming it all his life, even after he was set free via a presidential pardon. His later statements were carried by leading newspapers throughout the country and the sympathy of northerners as well as southerners seems to have been with him.
I’ve found a good bit of material on Ned Spangler in the files at York County Heritage Trust, in many books published on the conspiracy and also online, so I will be doing more posts on him. For an overview of Ned’s life, see my recent York Sunday News column below.

York’s Ned Spangler–tried as part of the Lincoln Conspiracy
“Ned” Spangler was born August 10, 1825 in York, Pa. Even though he is sometimes referred to him as Edmund, and trial transcripts name him Edward, he signed himself Edman Spangler, the name with which he was baptized at York’s First Reformed Church. Many people just called him Ned.
How did a simple carpenter, whose great grandfather was one of the founders of York and whose father had served as York County Sheriff, end up on trial before a military commission, accused of participating in perhaps the greatest conspiracy this country has ever known?
Ned could have known Lincoln assassin John Wilkes Booth when Booth attended the Sherwood School in York for a short time as a teenager in 1854. Ned himself said he knew Booth about that time, while working as a carpenter building on the Booth family’s new home at nearby Bel Air, Md. Starting around 1853 Spangler had worked at theaters in Baltimore and then at Ford’s Theater in Washington as a carpenter and a scene shifter, and would have been known at those venues.
Booth played at Ford’s Theater occasionally and also had a stable back of the theater for his horses. Ned and others who worked at Ford’s took care of Booth’s horses when he was out of town. Booth was such a familiar face at the theater that he had his Washington mail sent there. Ned himself slept in a room at the theater, taking his meals at a nearby boarding house.
On Friday April 14th, the night of Lincoln’s assassination, Booth had been around Ford’s theater. Part way through the play Booth called Ned out in the alley to hold his horse. Spangler was needed to shift the scenery on time, so he passed the horse-holding on to “Peanut John” Burroughs, a boy who did odd jobs around the theater.
The next few days were chaotic. Ned was taken in by the police, questioned and released a couple of times, then arrested Monday and taken to the Old Capitol Prison. By April 29, when the suspects were taken by boat to be securely imprisoned at the Old Washington Arsenal, most of them were chained, schackled and fitted with heavy hoods that had only a slit for breathing and eating. Ned was told the torturous hooding was ordered by order of Secretary of War Stanton.
The hoods were only taken off for the trial during the day. Major General Hartranft, in charge of the prison and prisoners, feared for their sanity, saying that Spangler’s mind was beginning to wander. Finally Hartranft received permission to have all but defendant Payne’s removed on June 10.
Spangler declared his innocence from the beginning. Booth was the only conspirator with whom he was acquainted. Ned was questioned about a hole bored in the presidential box and a board placed to block the box door, both probably done by Booth. He knew nothing of these or of screws in the door to the box that had been loose for some time. An initially suspicious piece of rope, 80 feet long, found in Spangler’s bag was used for crabbing, which Spangler loved to do, not meant for some purpose to help Booth escape.
Ned had been overheard agreeing to help Booth, but it was to help him sell his extra horse and his wagon, nothing else. Fellow sceneshifter Jacob Ritterspaugh told several people that Spangler slapped him and told him to shut up when Ritterspaugh recognized Booth. Ritterspaugh’s several versions didn’t hold up well, however, and it seems his testimony might have been in hope of getting a reward.
One June 30th the Military Commission determined its verdicts and sentences. Herold, Mrs. Surratt, Powell and Atzerodt were sentenced to die. Mudd, O’Laughlin and Arnold were sentenced to life in prison. Spangler, convicted only of aiding and abetting Booth’s escape, not conspiracy, received a sentence of six years at hard labor. The first four were quickly hung. and by the middle of July Spangler, Mudd, O’Laughlin and Arnold were taken aboard The State of Maine for their voyage to the Dry Tortugas, tiny desolate islands between Florida and Cuba. The unfinished Ft. Jefferson there was of brick, “a huge and massive structure, hexagon shaped.” It housed around 600 federal prisoners. Spangler wrote later in life of the conditions there and the cruelty of some of the guards.
Ned’s skills found a use in the prison carpentry shop, especially during an 1867 Yellow Fever outbreak, when he wrote “I am busy working in the carpenters’ shop, making coffins day and night….” He was afraid he too would contact the fever and die like fellow prisoner O’Laughlin.
Spangler was not forgotten by his friends. Employer John Ford published a pretrial pamphlet declaring Ned’s innocence on July 24, 1865. He declared “PUBLIC OPINION” was condemning Spangler, even before a trial. Ford and others, such as Congressman Adam Glossbrenner, didn’t give up–they appealed to President Andrew Johnson in early 1869 to pardon Spangler before the Johnson left office. Ford also forwarded a “petition signed by the mayor, judges and many prominent citizens of Baltimore for the pardon of Spangler.” The signatures covered almost four pages.
President Johnson signed the pardons for Spangler, Arnold and Mudd, and they were released in March. Spangler and Arnold traveled back north together, on a government ship to Key West then on the steamship Cuba on to Baltimore. Ned went back to work for Ford. His February 1875 obituary in the York Press says that after completing work on Ford’s Opera House in Baltimore, Spangler spent the last two years of his life with Dr. Mudd and his family near Bryantown, Md. He became ill after being caught in a storm and died February 7, 1875. Baptized Catholic hours before death, he was buried in nearby St. Peter’s Cemetery. The Surratt Society and Dr. Mudd Society dedicated a grave marker for him there in 1986.

How Do You Sell Pfaltzgraff Dishes?

Sell Pfaltzgraff dishes by organizing the collection according to patterns, checking the dishes for quality, photographing the dishes and posting them for sale on appropriate websites. Some collectors are interested in buying entire sets of patterns, while others are interested in completing sets.

Organize the Pfaltzgraff dishes by sets of patterns. Find out the rarity and value of specific patterns by searching online catalogs of discontinued and current Pfaltzgraff patterns. This search also helps you find the name of the pattern so you correctly identify it when you post the items for sale.

Check the dishes for defects, such as scratches, cracks, chips or uneven glaze. These impurities detract from the value of the items. Heavily damaged dishes are not coveted by collectors. However, some rare older Pfaltzgraff items sell for high prices even though they have minor defects.

Be sure the dishes are clean and shining. Set them up with simple, uncluttered backgrounds. Fill the frame with the individual dishes, and take clear, focused pictures of representative samples of the collection.

Post the photographs, detailed descriptions of the dishes and your contact information on websites where Pfaltzgraff enthusiasts search for additions to their collections. Some of the most popular websites for Pfaltzgraff collectors include eBay, the Internet Antique Shop, Priceminer, and local Pfaltzgaff collectors clubs and associations.

James M. Spangler

James Murray Spangler (November 20, 1848 – January 22, 1915) was an American inventor, salesman, and janitor who invented the primary commercially profitable moveable electrical vacuum cleaner that revolutionized family carpet cleansing. His system was not the primary vacuum cleaner, however it was the primary that was sensible for house use. It was the primary to make use of each a fabric filter bag and cleansing attachments. Spangler improved this primary mannequin and obtained a patent for it in 1908. He shaped the Electric Suction Sweeper Company to fabricate his system. William H. Hoover was so impressed with the vacuum cleaner that he purchased into Spangler’s enterprise and patents.

Despite being primitive and unwieldy, it labored—Spangler’s bronchial asthma abated, and he obtained a patent for his troubles. He additionally realized that he may lastly have a salable invention. Spangler first examined his invention in 1907. During the following yr, he refined the vacuum quite a few instances, and on June 2, 1908, he obtained a patent for his sweeper.

While watching a rotary avenue sweeper in operation, Spangler acquired the concept to mount the motor from a ceiling fan onto a carpet sweeper and minimize a gap behind the sweeper to connect fan blades which might blow grime out of the rear of the cleaner into an hooked up grime bag (a pillow case he borrowed from the shop). He hooked up a leather-based belt from the motor shaft to the wooden cylinder brush roll and a brush stick provided the deal with. In his subsequent try he used a picket cleaning soap field as the primary physique. He used his invention efficiently in cleansing the Folwell Building. Bringing his ingenuity to bear on the issue, Spangler long-established a tin field, a pillowcase, an electrical fan, and a brush deal with into one thing we’d acknowledge right now as a crude vacuum cleaner. Spangler referred to as it a “suction sweeper.”

Spangler was an asthmatic. Almost 60 and cursed with robust illness, he grew annoyed on the tiring and dusty work of sweeping the carpet within the retailer the place he labored. He suspected that the carpet sweeper he used on the job was the supply of his cough. A tinkerer at coronary heart, he set his thoughts to creating an electrical carpet sweeper. [2]

He later labored as a sweeper on the Zollinger Dept. Store positioned within the Folwell Building. positioned on the northwest nook of the general public sq. in Canton, Ohio. (The high ground was occupied – in 1907 – by the Elks Club and the remaining flooring occupied by the Wm. R. Zollinger Dept. Store.)

In 1897 he was granted a patent for a velocipede wagon and bought his invention to an organization in Springfield, Ohio. He claimed as new “the mixture of the physique or field, mounted upon touring wheels”. [1] The bicycle grew to become fairly common on the similar time and interfered with the sale of the wagon.

Spangler was granted a patent on a grain harvester in 1887. He invented sure new and helpful enhancements such because the sliding tailboard made from sheet metallic. He eliminated a regular tailboard and supplied the sliding tailboard to manage the width of the platform and regulate it to grain of various size. He additionally put in guards that prevented straw or grain from wrapping across the curler. Spangler invented a mixed hay rake and tedder which was patented in 1893. By his peculiar association, he was capable of present a mixed hay rake and tedder in a single machine, thereby lowering the price. He shaped an organization for its sale which was unsuccessful and short-lived.

After shifting to Akron, Spangler was in enterprise together with his brother promoting gent’s furnishings. He additionally labored for the Aultman Company as a salesman.

On May 21, 1874, Spangler married Elista (Lettie) Amanda Holtz. They had three kids, Clarence, Francis, and Jennie. In 1880 they moved to Akron.

Spangler was one in all ten kids born to Mr. William Spangler & Mrs. Elizabeth Lind Spangler on November 20, 1848. The Spangler household was initially from Plains Township, Pennsylvania and settled in Stark County, Ohio.

Spangler DE-96 - History

At 4 A.M. when Johnson's men were counter-attacked by returning Twelfth Corps troops, Steuart's soldiers found themselves trapped on the knoll. His right regiments, the 1st and 3rd North Carolina were pinned down by strong Union rifle fire coming from the summit and Union regiments that slipped into the woods immediately west of his position. Union artillery on the Baltimore Pike blasted the trees around his men, defenseless against this terrible fire.

At the height of the fighting, two Union regiments- the 2nd Massachusetts and the 27th Indiana, were ordered to send skirmishers toward the knoll where Steuart's men were locked in. By the time the order was delivered to the commanders of the regiments, it called for a full scale attack. Incredulous, Lt. Colonel Charles Mudge of the 2nd Massachusetts told his officers, "Boys, it is murder. But these are our orders!" The attack was a disaster. As the two regiments charged into the meadow just south of the spring, they were hit on three sides by musket fire, not only from Steuart but Virginians of Brig. General Walker's brigade, who had arrived to support the left of Steuart's line. Both regiments lost heavily, including Colonel Mudge who was shot dead during the charge.

Spangler's Spring

Battle of Spangler's Spring. Gettysburg NMP.

Spangler's Spring in 1863

Battles & Leaders

The fame of Spangler's Spring and its legend eventually led to damage from so many visitors who trampled its banks and destroyed the stone covers. To preserve the spring, the United States War Department constructed a permanent stone and concrete cover over it in 1895, with a small metal trap door to gain access to its waters. A metal dipper was provided for visitors to quench their thirst as the soldiers had done years before. This practice was halted soon after administration of the battlefield was assigned to the National Park Service. Due to the possibility of ground water contamination, the waters of Spangler's Spring are no longer available for public consumption.

Spangler's Spring and Battle of Gettysburg

Official Gettysburg Battlefield Tour Map

Spangler's Spring today

Gettysburg NMP

Battle of Spangler's Spring, Gettysburg

Battle of Spangler's Spring, July 2, 1863

Battle of Spangler's Spring, Gettysburg

Battle of Spangler's Spring, July 2, 1863

Recommended Reading : Gettysburg --Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill (Civil War America ) (Hardcover). Description: In this companion to his celebrated earlier book, Gettysburg —The Second Day, Harry Pfanz provides the first definitive account of the fighting between the Army of the Potomac and Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia at Cemetery Hill and Culp's Hill—two of the most critical engagements fought at Gettysburg on 2 and 3 July 1863. Pfanz provides detailed tactical accounts of each stage of the contest and explores the interactions between—and decisions made by—generals on both sides. In particular, he illuminates Confederate lieutenant general Richard S. Ewell's controversial decision not to attack Cemetery Hill after the initial southern victory on 1 July. Continued below.

Pfanz also explores other salient features of the fighting, including the Confederate occupation of the town of Gettysburg , the skirmishing in the south end of town and in front of the hills, the use of breastworks on Culp's Hill, and the small but decisive fight between Union cavalry and the Stonewall Brigade. About the Author: Harry W. Pfanz is author of Gettysburg --The First Day and Gettysburg --The Second Day. A lieutenant, field artillery, during World War II, he served for ten years as a historian at Gettysburg National Military Park and retired from the position of Chief Historian of the National Park Service in 1981. To purchase additional books from Pfanz, a convenient Amazon Search Box is provided at the bottom of this page.

Recommended Reading : The Artillery of Gettysburg (Hardcover). Description: The battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, the apex of the Confederacy's final major invasion of the North, was a devastating defeat that also marked the end of the South's offensive strategy against the North. From this battle until the end of the war, the Confederate armies largely remained defensive. The Artillery of Gettysburg is a thought-provoking look at the role of the artillery during the July 1-3, 1863 conflict. Continued below.

During the Gettysburg campaign, artillery had already gained the respect in both armies. Used defensively, it could break up attacking formations and change the outcomes of battle. On the offense, it could soften up enemy positions prior to attack. And even if the results were not immediately obvious, the psychological effects to strong artillery support could bolster the infantry and discourage the enemy. Ultimately, infantry and artillery branches became codependent, for the artillery needed infantry support lest it be decimated by enemy infantry or captured. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia had modified its codependent command system in February 1863. Prior to that, batteries were allocated to brigades, but now they were assigned to each infantry division, thus decentralizing its command structure and making it more difficult for Gen. Robert E. Lee and his artillery chief, Brig. Gen. William Pendleton, to control their deployment on the battlefield. The Union Army of the Potomac had superior artillery capabilities in numerous ways. At Gettysburg , the Federal artillery had 372 cannons and the Confederates 283. To make matters worse, the Confederate artillery frequently was hindered by the quality of the fuses, which caused the shells to explode too early, too late, or not at all. When combined with a command structure that gave Union Brig. Gen. Henry Hunt more direct control--than his Southern counterpart had over his forces--the Federal army enjoyed a decided advantage in the countryside around Gettysburg . Bradley M. Gottfried provides insight into how the two armies employed their artillery, how the different kinds of weapons functioned in battle, and the strategies for using each of them. He shows how artillery affected the “ebb and flow” of battle for both armies and thus provides a unique way of understanding the strategies of the Federal and Union commanders.

Recommended Reading : The History Buff's Guide to Gettysburg (Key People, Places, and Events) (Key People, Places, and Events). Description: While most history books are dry monologues of people, places, events and dates , The History Buff's Guide is ingeniously written and full of not only first-person accounts but crafty prose. For example, in introducing the major commanders, the authors basically call Confederate Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell a chicken literally. Continued below.

'Bald, bug-eyed, beak-nosed Dick Stoddard Ewell had all the aesthetic charm of a flightless foul.' To balance things back out a few pages later, they say federal Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade looked like a 'brooding gargoyle with an intense cold stare, an image in perfect step with his nature.' Although it's called a guide to Gettysburg , in my opinion, it's an authoritative guide to the Civil War. Any history buff or Civil War enthusiast or even that casual reader should pick it up.

Recommended Reading : The Maps of Gettysburg : The Gettysburg Campaign, June 3 - July 13, 1863 (Hardcover). Description: More academic and photographic accounts on the battle of Gettysburg exist than for all other battles of the Civil War combined-and for good reason. The three-days of maneuver, attack , and counterattack consisted of literally scores of encounters, from corps-size actions to small unit engagements. Despite all its coverage, Gettysburg remains one of the most complex and difficult to understand battles of the war. Author Bradley Gottfried offers a unique approach to the study of this multifaceted engagement. The Maps of Gettysburg plows new ground in the study of the campaign by breaking down the entire campaign in 140 detailed original maps. These cartographic originals bore down to the regimental level, and offer Civil Warriors a unique and fascinating approach to studying the always climactic battle of the war. Continued below.

The Maps of Gettysburg offers thirty "action-sections" comprising the entire campaign. These include the march to and from the battlefield, and virtually every significant event in between. Gottfried's original maps further enrich each "action-section." Keyed to each piece of cartography is detailed text that includes hundreds of soldiers' quotes that make the Gettysburg story come alive. This presentation allows readers to easily and quickly find a map and text on virtually any portion of the campaign, from the great cavalry clash at Brandy Station on June 9, to the last Confederate withdrawal of troops across the Potomac River on July 15, 1863. Serious students of the battle will appreciate the extensive and authoritative endnotes. They will also want to bring the book along on their trips to the battlefield… Perfect for the easy chair or for stomping the hallowed ground of Gettysburg , The Maps of Gettysburg promises to be a seminal work that belongs on the bookshelf of every serious and casual student of the battle.

Recommended Reading : Gettysburg , by Stephen W. Sears (640 pages) (November 3, 2004). Description: Sears delivers another masterpiece with this comprehensive study of America ’s most studied Civil War battle. Beginning with Lee's meeting with Davis in May 1863, where he argued in favor of marching north, to take pressure off both Vicksburg and Confederate logistics. It ends with the battered Army of Northern Virginia re-crossing the Potomac just two months later and with Meade unwilling to drive his equally battered Army of the Potomac into a desperate pursuit. In between is the balanced, clear and detailed story of how tens-of-thousands of men became casualties, and how Confederate independence on that battlefield was put forever out of reach. The author is fair and balanced. Continued below.

He discusses the shortcomings of Dan Sickles, who advanced against orders on the second day Oliver Howard, whose Corps broke and was routed on the first day and Richard Ewell, who decided not to take Culp's Hill on the first night, when that might have been decisive. Sears also makes a strong argument that Lee was not fully in control of his army on the march or in the battle, a view conceived in his gripping narrative of Pickett's Charge, which makes many aspects of that nightmare much clearer than previous studies. A must have for the Civil War buff and anyone remotely interested in American history.

Recommended Reading: The Gettysburg Campaign: A Study in Command ( 928 pages ). Description: Coddington's research is one of the most thorough and detailed studies of the Gettysburg Campaign. Exhaustive in scope and scale, Coddington delivers, with unrivaled research, in-depth battle descriptions and a complete history of the regiments involved. Continued below.

This is a must read for anyone seriously interested in American history and what transpired and shaped a nation on those pivotal days in July 1863.

Recommended Reading : ONE CONTINUOUS FIGHT: The Retreat from Gettysburg and the Pursuit of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia , July 4-14, 1863 (Hardcover) (June 2008 ). Description: The titanic three-day battle of Gettysburg left 50,000 casualties in its wake, a battered Southern army far from its base of supplies, and a rich historiographic legacy. Thousands of books and articles cover nearly every aspect of the battle, but not a single volume focuses on the military aspects of the monumentally important movements of the armies to and across the Potomac River . One Continuous Fight: The Retreat from Gettysburg and the Pursuit of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, July 4-14, 1863 is the first detailed military history of Lee's retreat and the Union effort to catch and destroy the wounded Army of Northern Virginia. Against steep odds and encumbered with thousands of casualties, Confederate commander Robert E. Lee's post-battle task was to successfully withdraw his army across the Potomac River. Union commander George G. Meade's equally difficult assignment was to intercept the effort and destroy his enemy. The responsibility for defending the exposed Southern columns belonged to cavalry chieftain James Ewell Brown (JEB) Stuart. If Stuart fumbled his famous ride north to Gettysburg , his generalship during the retreat more than redeemed his flagging reputation. The ten days of retreat triggered nearly two dozen skirmishes and major engagements, including fighting at Granite Hill, Monterey Pass , Hagerstown , Williamsport , Funkstown, Boonsboro, and Falling Waters. Continued below.

President Abraham Lincoln was thankful for the early July battlefield victory, but disappointed that General Meade was unable to surround and crush the Confederates before they found safety on the far side of the Potomac . Exactly what Meade did to try to intercept the fleeing Confederates, and how the Southerners managed to defend their army and ponderous 17-mile long wagon train of wounded until crossing into western Virginia on the early morning of July 14, is the subject of this study. One Continuous Fight draws upon a massive array of documents, letters, diaries, newspaper accounts, and published primary and secondary sources. These long-ignored foundational sources allow the authors, each widely known for their expertise in Civil War cavalry operations, to describe carefully each engagement. The result is a rich and comprehensive study loaded with incisive tactical commentary, new perspectives on the strategic role of the Southern and Northern cavalry, and fresh insights on every engagement, large and small, fought during the retreat. The retreat from Gettysburg was so punctuated with fighting that a soldier felt compelled to describe it as "One Continuous Fight." Until now, few students fully realized the accuracy of that description. Complimented with 18 original maps, dozens of photos, and a complete driving tour with GPS coordinates of the entire retreat, One Continuous Fight is an essential book for every student of the American Civil War in general, and for the student of Gettysburg in particular. About the Authors: Eric J. Wittenberg has written widely on Civil War cavalry operations. His books include Glory Enough for All (2002), The Union Cavalry Comes of Age (2003), and The Battle of Monroe's Crossroads and the Civil War's Final Campaign (2005). He lives in Columbus , Ohio . J. David Petruzzi is the author of several magazine articles on Eastern Theater cavalry operations, conducts tours of cavalry sites of the Gettysburg Campaign, and is the author of the popular "Buford's Boys." A long time student of the Gettysburg Campaign, Michael Nugent is a retired US Army Armored Cavalry Officer and the descendant of a Civil War Cavalry soldier. He has previously written for several military publications. Nugent lives in Wells, Maine .

Spangler DE-96 - History

My DPhil focused on the family of the Lorraine-Guise, as exemplars of foreign princes at the court of Louis XIV, with emphasis on the family's finances, marriage contracts, wills, roles for women, and roles at court, in the French provinces, and on the wider European stage.

More recently I have been researching and writing about frontier identities in an early modern, pre-nationalistic context. This work focuses on the border regions between France, Germany and the Low Countries. Within this context, I am embarking on a new study of the court and nobles of the Duchy of Lorraine (16th to 18th centuries).

Other side projects I continue to pursue include a more in-depth examination of same-sex relationships between princes at the French court the political and cultural roles of kings' brothers ('Monsieur') and further exploration of the position in noble society of 'women alone'--widows and spinsters--in early modern France.

Exploiting the turbulence and strife of sixteenth-century France, the House of Guise arose from a. more Exploiting the turbulence and strife of sixteenth-century France, the House of Guise arose from a provincial power base to establish themselves as dominant political players in France and indeed Europe, marrying within royal and princely circles and occupying the most important ecclesiastical and military positions. Propelled by ambitions derived from their position as cadets of a minor sovereign house, they represent a cadre of early modern elites who are difficult to categorise neatly: neither fully sovereign princes nor fully subject nobility. They might have spent most of their time in one state, France, but their interests were always ‘trans-national’ contested spaces far from the major centres of monarchical power – from the Ardennes to the Italian peninsula – were frequent theatres of activity for semi-sovereign border families such as the Lorraine-Guise. This nexus of activity, and the interplay between princely status and representation, is the subject of this book.

The essays in this collection approach Guise aims, ambitions and self-fashioning using this ‘trans-national’ dimension as context: their desire for increased royal (rather than merely princely) power and prestige, and the use of representation (visual and literary) in order to achieve it. Guise claims to thrones and territories from Jerusalem to Naples are explored, alongside the Guise ‘dream of Italy’, with in-depth studies of Henry of Lorraine, fifth Duke of Guise, and his attempts in the mid-seventeenth century to gain a throne in Naples. The combination of the violence and drama of their lives at the centres of European power and their adroit use of publicity ensured that versions of their strongly delineated images were appropriated by chroniclers, playwrights and artists, in which they sometimes featured as they would have wished, as heroes and heroines, frequently as villains, and ultimately as characters in the narratives of national heritage.

James M. Spangler

While working as a janitor at a department store in Canton, Ohio, James Murray Spangler invented a portable electric vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner's design was upright, and it used a cloth bag to collect the dirt that was vacuumed up. Spangler first tested his invention in 1907 and patented it after a number of modifications in 1908. He founded the Electric Suction Sweeper Company to manufacture his design.

Ultimately, Spangler's invention became known as the Hoover vacuum cleaner. William Hoover was married to Spangler's first cousin, who purchased one of Spangler's early models. Intrigued by the new machine, Hoover invested in Spangler's company. He eventually became president of the Electric Suction Sweeper Company. In 1922, Hoover renamed the company the Hoover Company. Under Hoover's direction, many improvements were made in the design of the vacuum cleaner and new sales strategies were tested. The Hoover Company, with its headquarters based in North Canton, Ohio, became one of the most successful and well-known vacuum cleaner manufacturers in the world. Hoover's success means that most people today associate the vacuum cleaner with him, rather than with Spangler.

What Were the Types of Jobs Available in Colonial Delaware?

Colonial Delaware provided a variety of jobs, including agriculture, trading of fur and material goods, shipbuilding, fishing, working in grist mills and producing paper products. Colonial Delaware provided a temperate climate, making agriculture the primary economic activity. Delaware's coastal location and key ports necessitated maritime commerce, including shipbuilding and repairing.

Farmers in colonial Delaware supported the local populations with food and revenue. Crops during the colonial era included wheat, rye, oat, corn, flaxseed, hay and produce. Corn and wheat served as staple crops for Delaware residents, while farmers exported the rest. Wheat from the northern region of Delaware proved superior to wheat crops from the southern region, while the economy of southern Delaware drew support primarily from fishing and shell-fishing. Although a lucrative business, agriculture did not produce revenue year-round.

During the winter months, Delaware citizens served as traders, exchanging products such as clothing and food for fur pelts from Native Americans. Women participated too, crafting and selling woven woolen and cloth items these products equated with currency, helping families purchase winter essentials. Paper mills and grist mills employed citizens in urbanized areas, as did port-side shipbuilding factories. Citizens constructed canoes, trading vessels, yachts and barges. In addition to trading with Native Americans, native Delaware citizens participated in sales and exchanges with other colonial territories, swapping goods and services for economic growth.

College Events & Traditions


A “deadly” game that draws shifty eyes all over campus, causing roommates to betray each other and even some Trumbullians to hide in showers. Although unofficially played since the late 1980s, the current incarnation of the Trumbull Assassin game was developed and run by Jon Gruenberg (TC ’95).

Trumbull Crier

Every town has a crier, and so does Trumbull. Every week, the Crier (or Trumcrier) has traditionally shouted from the balcony of the dining hall, “It’s six o’clock in Trumbull College, and all is well!” and made announcements of upcoming events. The first Trumbull Town Crier was Jeremy Monthy (TC ’95), who came up with the concept, made and wore the tricorn hat fitted with bull horns, and began each announcement, “Moo-ye, moo-ye.”

The Trumbulletin

This is Trumbull’s tabloid magazine and the oldest residential college publication at Yale, although it has been waning as of late, with nary an issue in more than two and a half years. The name of the tabloid has actually changed starting as the Trumbulllian, then the Trumbull Times, then the Trumbull Newsletter, then the Trumbulletin.

Rumble in Trumbull

Trumbullians combat with massive foam gloves. Favorite past Rumbles include Jews vs. Gentiles and various competitions among suites. The traditional master vs. dean match, however, has not taken place within the past few years.


Trumbullians celebrate the end of Spring classes with food, music, competitions, and the Running of the Bulls.

Running of the Bulls

A raucous run through Cross Campus and Berkeley College. It usually occurs on the day of Pamplona.

Potty Court Frisbee

A game popular in the 1970s and 1980s played in the Potty Court by two teams of two players each. The general idea was to try to throw a frisbee through the wrought iron arch at the one end of the courtyard from the other arch while the other team’s two players tried to stop it. Defenders could stand on and lean out from the low stone wall next to each arch, and could hang from the arch, but could not touch the walkway under the arch. The attempts alternated between the teams with a scoring system that gave more points for getting the frisbee through the smaller gaps in the arch.

To discourage defenders from committing to defense of the arch before the opponent threw, the thrower could also score a point for a shot that hit the wrought iron fencing next to the arch. The first team to get seven points won. The game included arcane terminology for the different point levels, including a “Grundel” for a more difficult throw. Other than the frisbee, the only other equipment used were leather gloves (optional) for hanging from the sharp wrought iron. A 1970 Yale Daily News article gives an overview of the game and profiles some early enthusiasts.


This has become increasingly popular among Trumbull seniors. The game involves throwing a series of four bean-bags across to the other team’s board, scoring 1 point for each that remains on the board, 3 points if it falls through a hole in the middle. After both teams have gone, the difference between their points is taken, and that difference is awarded to the winning team.

Potty Court Statue

The statue is a likeness of The Thinker by Rodin, but parodies it by placing the thinker on a toilet. The court, Potty Court, is Trumbull’s western most courtyard and is unlike any other at Yale in that the court takes its name from a statue. Trumbull seniors annually paint the Potty Court Statue prior to graduation.

Trumbull College Prizes

ROBERT E. LEWIS, JR., MEMORIAL TROPHY. For that Yale College senior who best demonstrates the ideals of athletic leadership and sportsmanship in intercollege competition.

JOHN SPANGLER NICHOLAS CUP. Awarded to that senior who has achieved the highest academic rank.

JOHN SPANGLER NICHOLAS PRIZE (1964). Mrs. Nicholas in memory of her husband, John Spangler Nicholas, Ph.D. 1921. For a junior in Trumbull College of outstanding character and leadership to be selected by the Head and Fellows of the College.

JOHN SPANGLER NICHOLAS SCHOLARSHIP (1964). Friends and associates of Mr. Nicholas. For a student of sterling character and high intellectual ability.

DEAN TEMPLE MEMORIAL TROPHY. Awarded to a senior for distinguished performance in intercollege athletics.

TRUMBULL FELLOWS’ PRIZE. For that student who has done the most to encourage student-faculty relations.

Notable Alumni

Les Aspin (1960, History, the Arts, and Letters)
United States Representative and Secretary of Defense

Susan Bysiewicz (1983, Scholars of the House)
Secretary of State for the State of Connecticut

Anderson Cooper (1989, Political Science)
Anchor of CNN’s Anderson Cooper 360°

Sharon Isbin (1978, Music)
Classical guitarist

David Lempert (1980, Economics & Political Science)
Anthropologist, author, human rights lawyer

Ron Livingston (1989, Theater Studies and Literature)

Dana Milbank (1990, Political Science)
Political journalist

Allison Silverman (1994, Humanities)
Writer for The Daily Show and The Colbert Report

Oliver Stone (attended)
Academy Award-winning director

Ted Tally (1974, Drama)
Playwright, Academy Award-winning screenwriter

Watch the video: 96-year-old Granddaughter of Plantation Owner Oral History (August 2022).