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Treaty of St. Petersburg, 5 May 1762

Treaty of St. Petersburg, 5 May 1762


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Treaty of St. Petersburg, 5 May 1762

Treaty that ended fighting in the Seven Years War between Prussia and Russia. The treaty followed the accession of Tsar Peter III, an admirer of Frederick the Great of Prussia, and allowed Frederick to concentrate on his other enemies.

Books on the Seven Years's War |Subject Index: Seven Years' War


History’s Unparalleled Alliance: the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of Windsor, 9th May 1386

The Treaty of Windsor sealed on 9th May 1386 (The National Archives: E 30/310) Seal of the Portuguese ambassador, Fernao Afonso de Albuquerque, Master of the Portuguese military order of St James (The National Archives: E 30/310)

Winston Churchill in a speech in the House of Commons in October 1943 famously described the unique and ancient friendship between England and Portugal as an alliance “without parallel in world history”.[1]

It is 630 years since a treaty of alliance between King Richard II of England and King John I of Portugal was ratified at Windsor on the 9 th May 1386 (The National Archives: E 30/310). Though it is not the earliest of the Anglo-Portuguese treaties that survive, the Treaty of Windsor is significant because it effectively cemented and strengthened ties between the two kingdoms and helped convert a fledgling alliance into a more permanent legacy of history.

The terms of the treaty included provisions for guaranteeing the mutual security of both nations and strengthening of commercial ties such as the right of both countries to trade on the terms enjoyed by the subjects of that country. There were even clauses encouraging freedom of movement and settlement between the two countries, as subjects of either country had the right to dwell in the domains of the other.

The seals attached to the document are those of the Portuguese ambassadors: Ferdinand Afonso de Albuquerque, Master of the Portuguese military order of St James and Chancellor of Portugal Lawrence John Fogaca entrusted as plenipotentiaries in the treaty negotiations.

So how did this alliance - the longest continuing alliance in global history - transpire?


Today is Tuesday, May 5, the 125th day of 2015. There are 240 days left in the year.

1570 - Turkey declares war on Venice for refusing to surrender Cyprus, and Spain comes to Venice's aid.

1646 - British forces under King Charles I surrender to Scots at Newark, England.

1762 - Russia and Prussia sign Treaty of St Petersburg, under which Russia restores all conquests and forms defensive and offensive alliance.

1788 - Three First Fleet vessels, Scarborough, Charlotte and Lady Penrhyn, leave NSW for England.

1821 - France's Napoleon Bonaparte dies in exile on the island of St Helena.

1824 - British troops take over Rangoon, Burma.

1865 - Australian bushranger Ben Hall is shot dead by one-time friend Billy Dargin at Billabong Creek, near Forbes, NSW.

1860 - Giuseppe Garibaldi and his "Thousand Redshirts" sail from Genoa to conquer Sicily and Naples.

1862 - Mexican army defeats invading French forces in the Battle of Puebla. May 5 is now Mexico's National Day.

1862 - In the American Civil War, the Confederates with 32,000 men succeed in blocking 40,000 Union troops at the battle of Williamsburg.

1893 - Stocks in New York drop sharply as investors sell at the start of the "panic of 1893".

1906 - Melbourne's first electric trams begin running, from St Kilda to Brighton.

1911 - New Zealand pilot JJ Hammond makes first flight over Sydney.

1925 - John Scopes is arrested in Tennessee for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution.

1930 - Mahatma Gandhi is arrested by the British in India after his campaign of disobedience.

1930 - Amy Johnson begins the first solo flight by a woman between England and Australia.

1931 - People's National Convention in Nanking, China, adopts provisional constitution.

1936 - Italian forces occupy Addis Ababa, ending Abyssinian (Ethiopian) War.

1942 - Battle of the Coral Sea begins.

1945 - US poet Ezra Pound is arrested in Italy for treason over his World War II broadcasts and taken back to the United States. (He was declared insane and allowed to return to Italy.)

1947 - Sixteen people die in train derailment at Camp Mountain, Queensland.

1951 - Death of Rev John Flynn, founder of Australia's Royal Flying Doctor Service.

1954 - General Alfredo Stroessner heads coup against civilian president Federico Chavez, beginning 34-year dictatorship in Paraguay.

1955 - The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) becomes a sovereign state after the Allied High Commission dissolves itself.

1961 - Alan Shepard becomes the first American into space in a 15-minute sub-orbital flight in a Mercury spacecraft.

1964 - Israel announces that first water is flowing from its new pipeline from Sea of Galilee to Negev Desert, despite Arab objections to the project.

1965 - First large US military units arrive in Vietnam.

1966 - First Australian National Servicemen arrive in Vietnam battle zone.

1978 - Red Brigades in Italy announce they are carrying out death sentence against former Italian prime minister Aldo Moro, whose body is found two days later.

1979 - Terrorists in El Salvador storm the French, Venezuelan and Costa Rican embassies demanding the release of political prisoners.

1980 - SAS troops storm the Iranian Embassy in London, killing four of the five gunmen who take over the building and seize hostages the first US B-52 bomber touches down at Darwin to the quiet protests of 250 people, the first of regular B-52 flights to the city.

1981 - Bobby Sands becomes the first of the 10 IRA hunger strikers to die in the Maze prison, Northern Ireland.

1988 - French assault team storms cave in French Pacific territory of New Caledonia and frees 22 gendarmes and prosecutor held hostage by Melanesian separatists.

1989 - Estonia's Communist Party removes 22 party leaders in sweep that gives greater strength to reformers.

1990 - Talks on German unification, involving Britain, France, Soviet Union, United States and two Germanies, open in Bonn.

1990 - Australian comedian-actor Paul Hogan weds US actress Linda Kozlowski.

1994 - Warplanes from North and South Yemen attack each other's cities.

1995 - John Major's governing Conservative Party in Britain is nearly obliterated in local elections.

1996 - Bob Bellear is appointed as Australia's first Aboriginal judge, in the NSW District Court.

1997 - Mousa Mohammed Abu Marzook, the political leader of militant Islamic organisation HAMAS, is deported from the United States to Jordan after the US fails to find evidence enough to prosecute him for involvement in terrorist attacks.

1999 - Indonesia and Portugal sign an agreement allowing the people of East Timor to vote on whether to remain part of Indonesia or seek independence.

2001 - The world's first paying space tourist, Dennis Tito, returns to Earth after a week in space.

2001 - In Angola UNITA rebels kidnap 51 boys and nine girls from a boarding school for war orphans outside Caxito, northeast of Luanda. Some 200 civilians die in the raid.

2002 - The world's second space tourist, the South African Mark Shuttleworth, returns to earth in a Russian Soyuz capsule after a 10-day trip to space that cost him $US24 million ($A38.4 million).

2002 - The conservative Jacques Chirac wins 82 per cent of the vote in second round of a French presidential election, crushing the far-right leader Jean-Marie Le Pen with the largest vote in the Fifth Republic's 44-year history.

2003 - Rwanda frees more than 22,000 detainees, most of whom were held in connection with the 1994 massacre of some 800,000 ethnic Tutsi and moderate Hutu by Hutu militias. Around 80,000 genocide suspects remain in prison, with many yet to stand trial.

2004 - Greece's attempts to calm security fears about the Summer Olympics are rocked by three bombs that explode before dawn - 100 days before the games begin. No one is injured in the blasts that officials attribute to self-styled anarchists or other domestic extremists.

2004 - Picasso's Boy With the Pipe sets a new world record for the most expensive painting ever sold at auction when it fetches $US104,168,000 ($A125.92 million) at Sotheby's in New York.

2006 - Five-year-old Car crash burns victim Sophie Delezio is hit by a car while crossing a Sydney road with her carer. She isn't expected to survive but astounds medical staff by pulling through again.

2007 - A Kenya Airways Boeing 737-800 carrying 114 and bound for the Kenyan capital Nairobi, crashes just 5 kilometres from the Cameroonian city of Douala, where it had taken off during a storm, killing all aboard.

2008 - Troops open fire and kill at least two people as tens of thousands of people riot over high food prices in Somalia's capital, Mogadishu.

2009 - Russia's foreign minister pulls out of a meeting with NATO this month to protest the alliance's upcoming military exercises in Georgia and the expulsion of two Russian diplomats from its headquarters.

2010 - Rioting over harsh austerity measures leaves three people dead in a torched Athens bank and clouds of tear gas drift past parliament, in an outburst of anger that underlined the long and difficult struggle Greece faces to stick with painful cutbacks that come with an international bailout.

2011 - Pakistan's army breaks its silence over the US commando raid that killed Osama bin Laden, acknowledging its own "shortcomings" in efforts to find the al-Qaida leader but threatening to review cooperation with Washington if there is another similar violation of Pakistani sovereignty.

2011 - Claude Stanley Choules, the last surviving combatant from World War I, dies in Perth, aged 110. British-born Choules served in Britain's Royal Navy in what comes to be known as the Great War before moving to Australia and serving in the navy for 40 years, including through WWII.

2012 - The self-proclaimed mastermind of the September 11, 2001 attacks against the US repeatedly declines to answer a judge's questions and his co-defendants kneel in prayer in what appeared to be a concerted protest against the military proceedings at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

2013 - The death toll from Bangladesh's worst industrial disaster surpassed 600 after dozens of bodies were pulled from the wreckage of a nine-storey building housing garment factory.

2014 - Egypt's former military chief Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi, seen as certain to become the next president, says the Muslim Brotherhood will never return if he is elected, accusing it of using militant groups to destabilise the country.


Today in History - Historical Events - May 5th

1877 Indian Wars: Sitting Bull leads his band of Lakota into Canada to avoid harassment by the United States Army under Colonel Nelson Miles.

1978 Cin Red Pete Rose becomes 14th player to get 3,000 hits

1930 Bradman scores 185* Aust v Leicestershire, 317 mins, 16 fours

1999 34th Academy of Country Music Awards: Garth Brooks, Faith Hill & Tim McGraw wins

1646 King Charles I surrenders at Scotland

1957 Betsy Rawls wins LPGA Peach Blossom Golf Open

1904 Cy Young of Boston pitches perfect game against Phila A's (3-0)

1494 On 2nd voyage to New World, Christopher Columbus sights Jamaica

1945 World War II: Admiral Karl Dönitz, leader of Germany after Hitler's death, orders all U-boats to cease offensive operations and return to their bases.

1834 Charles Darwin's expedition begins at Rio Santa Cruz

1891 Music Hall (Carnegie Hall) opens in NY, Tchaikovsky as guest conductor

1944 Gandhi freed from prison

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Treaty of St. Petersburg, 5 May 1762 - History

Take a look at the important historical events that took place in the Month of May that changed the world.

May 1

1707 – The Act of Union joins the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1753 – Publication of Species Plantarum by Linnaeus, and the formal start date of plant taxonomy adopted by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

1759 – Josiah Wedgwood founded the Wedgwood pottery company in Great Britain.

1776 – Establishment of the Illuminati in Ingolstadt (Upper Bavaria), by Jesuit-taught Adam Weishaupt.

1778 – American Revolution: The Battle of Crooked Billet begins in Hatboro, Pennsylvania.

1785 – Kamehameha I, the king of Hawaiʻi, defeats Kalanikūpule and establishes the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.

1786 – In Vienna, Austria, Mozart's opera The Marriage of Figaro is performed for the first time.

1794 – War of the Pyrenees: The Battle of Boulou ends, in which French forces defeat the Spanish and regain nearly all the land they lost to Spain in 1793.

1840 – The Penny Black, the first official adhesive postage stamp, is issued in the United Kingdom.

May 2

1670 – King Charles II of England grants a permanent charter to the Hudson's Bay Company to open up the fur trade in North America.

1672 – John Maitland becomes Duke of Lauderdale and Earl of March.

1808 – Outbreak of the Peninsular War: The people of Madrid rise up in rebellion against French occupation. Francisco de Goya later memorializes this event in his painting The Second of May 1808.

1812 – The Siege of Cuautla during the Mexican War of Independence ends with both sides claiming victory after Mexican rebels under José María Morelos y Pavón abandon the city after 72 days under siege by royalist Spanish troops under Félix María Calleja.

1816 – Marriage of Léopold of Saxe-Coburg and Princess Charlotte of Wales.

1829 – After anchoring nearby, Captain Charles Fremantle of HMS Challenger, declares the Swan River Colony in Australia.

May 3

1715 – A total solar eclipse was visible across northern Europe, and northern Asia, as predicted by Edmond Halley to within 4 minutes accuracy.

1791 – The Constitution of May 3 (the first modern constitution in Europe) is proclaimed by the Sejm of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

1802 – Washington, D.C. is incorporated as a city.

1808 – Finnish War: Sweden loses the fortress of Sveaborg to Russia.

1808 – Peninsular War: The Madrid rebels who rose up on May 2 are executed near Príncipe Pío hill.

1815 – Neapolitan War: Joachim Murat, King of Naples is defeated by the Austrians at the Battle of Tolentino, the decisive engagement of the war.

1830 – The Canterbury and Whitstable Railway is opened. It's the first steam hauled passenger railway to issue season tickets and include a tunnel.

1837 – The University of Athens is founded in Athens, Greece.

May 4

1675 – King Charles II of England orders the construction of the Royal Greenwich Observatory.

1686 – The Municipality of Ilagan is founded in the Philippines.

1776 – Rhode Island becomes the first American colony to renounce allegiance to King George III.

1799 – Fourth Anglo-Mysore War: The Battle of Seringapatam: The siege of Seringapatam ends when the city is invaded and Tipu Sultan killed by the besieging British army, under the command of General George Harris.

1814 – Emperor Napoleon I of France arrives at Portoferraio on the island of Elba to begin his exile.

1814 – King Ferdinand VII of Spain signs the Decree of the 4th of May, returning Spain to absolutism.

1836 – Formation of Ancient Order of Hibernians

May 5

1762 – Russia and Prussia sign the Treaty of St. Petersburg.

1789 – In France, the Estates-General convenes for the first time since 1614.

1809 – Mary Kies becomes the first woman awarded a U.S. patent, for a technique of weaving straw with silk and thread.

1809 – The Swiss canton of Aargau allowed citizenship to Jews.

1811 – In the second day of fighting at the Peninsular War Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro the French army, under Marshall André Masséna, drive in the Duke of Wellington's overextended right flank, but French frontal assaults fail to take the town of Fuentes de Oñoro and the Anglo-Portuguese army holds the field at the end of the day.

1821 – Emperor Napoleon dies in exile on the island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean.

1835 – In Belgium, the first railway in continental Europe opens between Brussels and Mechelen.

May 6

1682 – Louis XIV moves his court to the Palace of Versailles.

1757 – Battle of Prague: A Prussian army fights an Austrian army in Prague during the Seven Years' War.

1757 – The end of Konbaung–Hanthawaddy War, and the end of Burmese Civil War (1740–1757).

1757 – English poet Christopher Smart is admitted into St Luke's Hospital for Lunatics in London, beginning his six-year confinement to mental asylums.

1782 – Construction begins on the Grand Palace, the royal residence of the King of Siam in Bangkok, at the command of King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke.

1801 – Captain Thomas Cochrane in the 14-gun HMS Speedy captures the 32-gun Spanish frigate El Gamo.

1835 – James Gordon Bennett, Sr. publishes the first issue of the New York Herald.

1840 – The Penny Black postage stamp becomes valid for use in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

May 7

1697 – Stockholm's royal castle (dating back to medieval times) is destroyed by fire. It is replaced by the current Royal Palace in the eighteenth century.

1718 – The city of New Orleans is founded by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville.

1763 – Pontiac's War begins with Pontiac's attempt to seize Fort Detroit from the British.

1794 – French Revolution: Robespierre introduces the Cult of the Supreme Being in the National Convention as the new state religion of the French First Republic.

1824 – World premiere of Ludwig van Beethoven's Ninth Symphony in Vienna, Austria. The performance is conducted by Michael Umlauf under the composer's supervision.

1832 – The independence of Greece is recognized by the Treaty of London. Otto of Wittelsbach, Prince of Bavaria is chosen king.

1840 – The Great Natchez Tornado strikes Natchez, Mississippi killing 317 people. It is the second deadliest tornado in United States history.

May 8

1788 – The French Parliament is suspended to be replaced by the creation of forty-seven new courts.

1794 – Branded a traitor during the Reign of Terror by revolutionists, French chemist Antoine Lavoisier, who was also a tax collector with the Ferme Générale, is tried, convicted, and guillotined all on the same day in Paris.

1821 – Greek War of Independence: The Greeks defeat the Turks at the Battle of Gravia Inn.

May 9

1671 – Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal England's Crown Jewels from the Tower of London.

1726 – Five men arrested during a raid on Mother Clap's molly house in London are executed at Tyburn.

1763 – The Siege of Fort Detroit begins during Pontiac's War against British forces.

May 10

1768 – John Wilkes is imprisoned for writing an article for The North Briton severely criticizing King George III. This action provokes rioting in London.

1773 – The Parliament of Great Britain passes the Tea Act, designed to save the British East India Company by granting it a monopoly on the North American tea trade.

1774 – Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette become King and Queen of France.

1775 – American Revolutionary War: A small Colonial militia led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold captures Fort Ticonderoga.

1775 – American Revolutionary War: Representatives from the Thirteen Colonies begin the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

1796 – War of the First Coalition: Napoleon I of France wins a decisive victory against Austrian forces at Lodi bridge over the Adda River in Italy. The Austrians lose some 2,000 men.

1801 – First Barbary War: The Barbary pirates of Tripoli declared war on the United States of America.

1824 – The National Gallery in London opens to the public.

1833 – The desecration of the grave of the viceroy of southern Vietnam Lê Văn Duyệt by Emperor Minh Mạng provokes his adopted son to start a revolt.

1837 – Panic of 1837: New York City banks fail, and unemployment reaches record levels.

May 11

1672 – Franco-Dutch War: Louis XIV of France invades the Netherlands.

1745 – War of the Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy: French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch–Hanoverian army.

1792 – Captain Robert Gray becomes the first documented white person to sail into the Columbia River.

1812 – Prime Minister Spencer Perceval is assassinated by John Bellingham in the lobby of the House of Commons, London.

1813 – In Australia, William Lawson, Gregory Blaxland and William Wentworth lead an expedition to cross the Blue Mountains west of Sydney. Their route opens up inland Australia for continued expansion throughout the 19th century.

1820 – HMS Beagle, the ship that will take Charles Darwin on his scientific voyage, is launched.

May 12

1689 – King William's War: William III of England joins the League of Augsburg starting a war with France.

1743 – Maria Theresa of Austria is crowned Queen of Bohemia after defeating her rival, Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor.

1780 – American Revolutionary War: In the largest defeat of the Continental Army, Charleston, South Carolina is taken by British forces.

1797 – War of the First Coalition: Napoleon I of France conquers Venice.

1821 – The first major battle of the Greek War of Independence against the Turks is fought in Valtetsi.

May 13

1779 – War of the Bavarian Succession: Russian and French mediators at the Congress of Teschen negotiate an end to the war. In the agreement Austria receives the part of its territory that was taken from it (the Innviertel).

1780 – The Cumberland Compact is signed by leaders of the settlers in early Tennessee.

1787 – Captain Arthur Phillip leaves Portsmouth, England, with eleven ships full of convicts (the "First Fleet") to establish a penal colony in Australia.

1804 – Forces sent by Yusuf Karamanli of Tripoli to retake Derna from the Americans attack the city.

1830 – Ecuador gains its independence from Gran Colombia.

May 14

1747 – War of the Austrian Succession: A British fleet under Admiral George Anson defeats the French at the First Battle of Cape Finisterre.

1787 – In Philadelphia, delegates convene a Constitutional Convention to write a new Constitution for the United States George Washington presides.

1796 – Edward Jenner administers the first smallpox inoculation.

1804 – The Lewis and Clark Expedition departs from Camp Dubois and begins its historic journey by traveling up the Missouri River.

1811 – Paraguay: Pedro Juan Caballero, Fulgencio Yegros and José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia start actions to depose the Spanish governor

1836 – The Treaties of Velasco are signed in Velasco, Texas.

May 15

1701 – The War of the Spanish Succession begins.

1718 – James Puckle, a London lawyer, patents the world's first machine gun.

1755 – Laredo, Texas is established by the Spaniards.

1776 – American Revolution: The Virginia Convention instructs its Continental Congress delegation to propose a resolution of independence from Great Britain, paving the way for the United States Declaration of Independence.

1791 – French Revolution: Maximilien Robespierre proposes the Self-denying Ordinance.

1792 – War of the First Coalition: France declares war on Kingdom of Sardinia.

1793 – Diego Marín Aguilera flies a glider for "about 360 meters", at a height of 5–6 meters, during one of the first attempted manned flights.

1796 – War of the First Coalition: Napoleon enters Milan in triumph.

1800 – King George III of the United Kingdom survives an assassination attempt by James Hadfield, who is later acquitted by reason of insanity.

1811 – Paraguay declares independence from Spain.

1817 – Opening of the first private mental health hospital in the United States, the Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of Their Reason (now Friends Hospital) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1836 – Francis Baily observes "Baily's beads" during an annular eclipse.

May 16

1770 – A 14-year-old Marie Antoinette marries 15-year-old Louis-Auguste who later becomes king of France.

1771 – The Battle of Alamance, a pre-American Revolutionary War battle between local militia and a group of rebels called The "Regulators", occurs in present-day Alamance County, North Carolina.

1811 – Peninsular War: The allies Spain, Portugal and United Kingdom, defeat the French at the Battle of Albuera.

1812 – Russian Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov signs the Treaty of Bucharest, ending the Russo-Turkish War. Bessarabia is annexed by Imperial Russia.

1822 – Greek War of Independence: The Turks capture the Greek town of Souli.

1834 – The Battle of Asseiceira is fought, the last and decisive engagement of the Liberal Wars in Portugal.

May 17

1673 – Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette begin exploring the Mississippi River.

1775 – American Revolutionary War: the Continental Congress bans trade with Quebec.

1792 – The New York Stock Exchange is formed under the Buttonwood Agreement.

1805 – Muhammad Ali becomes Wāli of Egypt.

1808 – Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire.

1814 – Occupation of Monaco changes from French to Austrian.

1814 – The Constitution of Norway is signed and Crown Prince Christian Frederick of Denmark is elected King of Norway by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly.

May 18

1756 – The Seven Years' War begins when Great Britain declares war on France.

1763 – Fire destroys a large part of Montreal

1783 – First United Empire Loyalists reach Parrtown (later called Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada after leaving the United States.

1803 – Napoleonic Wars: The United Kingdom revokes the Treaty of Amiens and declares war on France.

1804 – Napoleon Bonaparte is proclaimed Emperor of the French by the French Senate.

1811 – Battle of Las Piedras: The first great military triumph of the revolution of the Río de la Plata in Uruguay led by José Artigas.

1812 – John Bellingham is found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging for the assassination of British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval.

May 19

1743 – Jean-Pierre Christin developed the centigrade temperature scale.

1749 – King George II of Great Britain grants the Ohio Company a charter of land around the forks of the Ohio River.

1776 – American Revolutionary War: A Continental Army garrison surrenders in the Battle of The Cedars.

1780 – New England's Dark Day: A combination of thick smoke and heavy cloud cover causes complete darkness to fall on Eastern Canada and the New England area of the United States at 10:30 A.M.

1802 – Napoleon Bonaparte founds the Legion of Honour.

1828 – U.S. President John Quincy Adams signs the Tariff of 1828 into law, protecting wool manufacturers in the United States.

May 20

1775 – Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence is signed in Charlotte, North Carolina

1802 – By the Law of 20 May 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte reinstates slavery in the French colonies, revoking its abolition in the French Revolution.

1813 – Napoleon Bonaparte leads his French troops into the Battle of Bautzen in Saxony, Germany, against the combined armies of Russia and Prussia. The battle ends the next day with a French victory.

1840 – York Minster is badly damaged by fire.

May 21

1674 – The nobility elect John Sobieski King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

1725 – The Order of St. Alexander Nevsky is instituted in Russia by Empress Catherine I. It would later be discontinued and then reinstated by the Soviet government in 1942 as the Order of Alexander Nevsky.

1758 – Ten-year-old Mary Campbell is abducted in Pennsylvania by Lenape during the French and Indian War. She is returned six and a half years later.

1809 – The first day of the Battle of Aspern-Essling between the Austrian army led by Archduke Charles and the French army led by Napoleon I of France sees the French attack across the Danube held.

May 22

1762 – Sweden and Prussia sign the Treaty of Hamburg.

1762 – Trevi Fountain in Rome is officially completed and inaugurated by Pope Clemens XIII.

1807 – A grand jury indicts former Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr on a charge of treason.

1807 – Most of the English town of Chudleigh is destroyed by fire.

1809 – On the second and last day of the Battle of Aspern-Essling (near Vienna, Austria), Napoleon I is repelled by an enemy army for the first time.

1812 – Action of 22 May 1812: A small French two-frigate squadron comprising Ariane and Andromaque, returning from a commerce raiding campaign in the Atlantic, meets the 74-gun HMS Northumberland while trying the slip to Lorient through the British blockade.

1816 – A mob in Littleport, Cambridgeshire, England, riots over high unemployment and rising grain costs the rioting spreads to Ely the next day.

1819 – The SS Savannah leaves port at Savannah, Georgia, United States, on a voyage to become the first steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean. The ship arrived at Liverpool, England, on June 20.

1826 – HMS Beagle departs on its first voyage.

1840 – The transportation of British convicts to the New South Wales colony is abolished.

May 23

1701 – After being convicted of piracy and of murdering William Moore, Captain William Kidd is hanged in London, England.

1706 – Battle of Ramillies: John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, defeats a French army under Marshal François de Neufville, duc de Villeroy.

1788 – South Carolina ratifies the United States Constitution as the eighth American state.

1793 – Battle of Famars during the Flanders Campaign of the War of the First Coalition.

1829 – Accordion patent granted to Cyrill Demian in Vienna, Austrian Empire.

May 24

1689 – The English Parliament passes the Act of Toleration protecting Protestants. Roman Catholics are intentionally excluded.

1738 – John Wesley is converted, essentially launching the Methodist movement the day is celebrated annually by Methodists as Aldersgate Day and a church service is generally held on the preceding Sunday.

1798 – The Irish Rebellion of 1798 led by the United Irishmen against British rule begins.

1813 – South American independence leader Simón Bolívar enters Mérida, leading the invasion of Venezuela, and is proclaimed El Libertador ("The Liberator").

1822 – Battle of Pichincha: Antonio José de Sucre secures the independence of the Presidency of Quito.

1830 – "Mary Had a Little Lamb" by Sarah Josepha Hale is published.

1830 – The first revenue trains in the United States begin service on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad between Baltimore, and Ellicott's Mills, Maryland.

1832 – The First Kingdom of Greece is declared in the London Conference.

May 25

1738 – A treaty between Pennsylvania and Maryland ends the Conojocular War with settlement of a boundary dispute and exchange of prisoners.

1798 – United Irishmen Rebellion: Battle of Carlow begins executions of suspected rebels at Carnew and at Dunlavin Green take place.

1809 – Chuquisaca Revolution: Patriot revolt in Chuquisaca (modern day Sucre) against the Spanish Empire, sparking the Latin American wars of independence.

1810 – May Revolution: citizens of Buenos Aires expel Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros during the May week, starting the Argentine War of Independence.

1819 – The Argentine Constitution of 1819 is promulgated.

1833 – The Chilean Constitution of 1833 is promulgated.

1837 – The Rebels of Lower Canada (Quebec) rebel against the British for freedom.

May 26

1736 – The Battle of Ackia was fought near the present site of Tupelo, Mississippi. British and Chickasaw soldiers repelled a French and Choctaw attack on the then-Chickasaw village of Ackia.

1770 – The Orlov Revolt, an attempt to revolt against the Ottoman Empire before the Greek War of Independence, ends in disaster for the Greeks.

1783 – A Great Jubilee Day held at North Stratford, Connecticut, celebrated end of fighting in American Revolution.

1805 – Napoléon Bonaparte assumes the title of King of Italy and is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy in Milan Cathedral, the gothic cathedral in Milan.

1821 – Establishment of the Peloponnesian Senate by the Greek rebels.

1822 – One hundred sixteen people die in the Grue Church fire, the biggest fire disaster in Norway's history.

1828 – Feral child Kaspar Hauser is discovered wandering the streets of Nuremberg.

1830 – The Indian Removal Act is passed by the U.S. Congress it is signed into law by President Andrew Jackson two days later.

May 27

1703 – Tsar Peter the Great founds the city of Saint Petersburg.

1798 – The Battle of Oulart Hill takes place in Wexford, Ireland.

1799 – War of the Second Coalition: Austrian forces defeats the French at Winterthur, Switzerland, securing control of the northeastern Swiss Plateau because of the town's location at the junction of seven cross-roads.

1813 – War of 1812: In Canada, American forces capture Fort George.

May 28

1754 – French and Indian War: In the first engagement of the war, Virginia militia under the 22-year-old Lieutenant colonel George Washington defeat a French reconnaissance party in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in what is now Fayette County in southwestern Pennsylvania.

1830 – U.S. President Andrew Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act which relocates Native Americans.

May 29

1677 – Treaty of Middle Plantation establishes peace between the Virginia colonists and the local Natives.

1727 – Peter II becomes Czar of Russia.

1733 – The right of Canadians to keep Indian slaves is upheld at Quebec City.

1780 – American Revolutionary War: At the Battle of Waxhaws, the British continue attacking after the Continentals lay down their arms, killing 113 and critically wounding all but 53 that remained.

1790 – Rhode Island becomes the last of the original United States' colonies to ratify the Constitution and is admitted as the 13th U.S. state.

1798 – United Irishmen Rebellion: Between 300 and 500 United Irishmen are massacred by the British Army in County Kildare, Ireland.

1807 – Mustafa IV became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam.

May 30

1806 – Future U.S. President Andrew Jackson kills Charles Dickinson in a duel after Dickinson had accused Jackson's wife of bigamy.

1814 – Napoleonic Wars: War of the Sixth Coalition: The Treaty of Paris (1814) is signed returning French borders to their 1792 extent. Napoleon is exiled to Elba.

1815 – The East Indiaman Arniston is wrecked during a storm at Waenhuiskrans, near Cape Agulhas, in present-day South Africa, with the loss of 372 lives.

1832 – End of the Hambach Festival in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

1832 – The Rideau Canal in eastern Ontario is opened.

1834 – Joaquim António de Aguiar issues a law extinguishing "all convents, monasteries, colleges, hospices and any other houses of the regular religious orders" in Portugal, earning him the nickname of "The Friar-Killer".

May 31

1669 – Citing poor eyesight, Samuel Pepys records the last event in his diary.

1775 – American Revolution: The Mecklenburg Resolves are allegedly adopted in the Province of North Carolina.

1790 – Manuel Quimper explores the Strait of Juan de Fuca.

1790 – The United States enacts its first copyright statute, the Copyright Act of 1790.

1795 – French Revolution: The Revolutionary Tribunal is suppressed.

1805 – French and Spanish forces begin the assault against British forces occupying Diamond Rock.

1813 – In Australia, William Lawson, Gregory Blaxland and William Wentworth reach Mount Blaxland, effectively marking the end of a route across the Blue Mountains.


Treaties

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"Everything that they used to get them to sign treaties, I think was illegal in a lot of ways--browbeating, brainwashing, and then on the other hand telling them, 'If you sign this treaty, you’re not going to ever have to work or hunt again we’ll take care of you.' Everything will be provided. Every year you’ll get so much money to buy your needs, your pots and pans, but we’ll also have food coming in every month, or once a year for you. The other alternative is: 'We’re going to drive you all the way to the Rocky Mountains where you’re going to starve to death and we’ll never have to worry about you again.' Those were the conditions that were being talked about, and sometimes I think they might have done that."

Dr. Elden Lawrence, Sisseton Wahpeton Dakota community, 2010.

Treaties are agreements negotiated between two sovereign nations. A sovereign nation is one that has the right to govern itself.


Cheka

Soon after the Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin established the Cheka, Russia’s first secret police.

As the economy deteriorated during the Russian Civil War, Lenin used the Cheka to silence political opposition, both from his opponents and challengers within his own political party.

But these measures did not go unchallenged: Fanya Kaplan, a member of a rival socialist party, shot Lenin in the shoulder and neck as he was leaving a Moscow factory in August 1918, badly injuring him.


Continental Congress ratifies the Treaty of Paris, ending the American Revolution

On January 14, 1784, the Continental Congress ratifies the Treaty of Paris, ending the War for Independence.

In the document, which was known as the Second Treaty of Paris because the Treaty of Paris was also the name of the agreement that had ended the Seven Years’ War in 1763, Britain officially agreed to recognize the independence of its 13 former colonies as the new United States of America.

In addition, the treaty settled the boundaries between the United States and what remained of British North America. U.S. fishermen won the right to fish in the Grand Banks, off the Newfoundland coast, and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Both sides agreed to ensure payment to creditors in the other nation of debts incurred during the war and to release all prisoners of war. The United States promised to return land confiscated during the war to its British owners, to stop any further confiscation of British property and to honor the property left by the British army on U.S. shores, including Negroes or slaves. Both countries assumed perpetual rights to access the Mississippi River.

Despite the agreement, many of these issues remained points of contention between the two nations in the post-war years. The British did not abandon their western forts as promised and attempts by British merchants to collect outstanding debts from Americans were unsuccessful as American merchants were unable to collect from their customers, many of whom were struggling farmers.

In Massachusetts, where by 1786 the courts were clogged with foreclosure proceedings, farmers rose in a violent protest known as Shay’s Rebellion, which tested the ability of the new United States to maintain law and order within its borders and instigated serious reconsideration of the Articles of Confederation.


Treaty of St. Petersburg, 5 May 1762 - History

Before the 18th century, Russia was considered a part of Europe only by courtesy. Hemmed in by Sweden on the Baltic and the Ottoman Empire on the Black Sea, the country had no warm water ports. Archangel on the White Sea was its only outlet to the West. Consequently, there was little trade. Besides the physical separation, Russia was separated by the customs and cultural adherence to Eastern cultural and political traditions. During the 18th century, the Russian Empire became a Political power. This became possible because of Peter the Great. His accomplishments forced the West to take notice.

Peter The Great
The Russian Empire is usually dated from the reign of Peter the Great from 1689 to 1725 and with it the beginning of modern Russian history. When he came to power, Peter had two basic goals for his country.

  • Modernize his country in western fashion.
  • Gain warm water ports to access to the west, thus, bringing more trade, recognition, and respect by the other European powers.

Dealing with the West
Peter set out upon his plans by at first sending a grand embassy to the European powers in 1697 to enlist their help against Turkey. He went along, pretending to be a ship's carpenter named Peter Mikhailov, and worked in English and Dutch shipyards. He studied everything from anatomy and engraving to European industrial techniques.

He was determined to give Russia an outlet to the sea, both on the Baltic Sea, which was controlled by Sweden, and on the Caspian Sea, whose shores were held by the Turks and Tartars. He brought European shipbuilders to Russia, and in 1696, with a new fleet, was able to capture Azov, the chief Turkish fortress on the Sea of Azov. As Capt. Peter Alekseevich, he commanded from the Principium, a ship built by his own hand.

In 1700, he felt ready to attack Sweden. With Poland and Denmark as allies, he started the Great Northern War, which lasted until 1721 Peter defeated the Swedes and gained an outlet to the Baltic Sea.

The Treaty of Nystad (1721) ended the war and gave Russia the prized Swedish provinces on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. Sweden became a second-rate military power, and Poland was reduced to a pawn of its more powerful neighbors, Russia and Prussia.

As a result of the victory, the Russian Empire was formed on Oct. 22 (Nov. 2, New Style), 1721. On that day Peter was acclaimed Father of the Fatherland, Peter the Great, and emperor of all the Russia’s, by the Russian Senate, in gratitude for victory in the war.

Internal Affairs
At the same time as he was dealing with the west, Peter was organizing and modernizing his country, internally. He was to all intents and purposes, ruthless in this matter. He implemented reforms and forced his subjects to conform. He founded a navy, introduced factories, reformed the administrative machinery, and organized a modern army. He created a new Russian capital St. Petersburg on the Gulf of Finland.

In 1703, wanting to "open a window to Europe", Peter began construction of the Peter and Paul Fortress on territory that he had won, which became the new capital city of St. Petersburg and moved his imperial court there in 1712.

In order to populate St. Petersburg, Peter required all upper-class Russians to move there from their estates. This of course caused some hardship on those who were required to do so.

One problem was that the country had no transportation infrastructure. What roads there were only ran east to west, and even then, they were difficult to traverse, especially during the Russian winter. Both Napoleon and Hitler found this out when they tried to invade and conquer Russia.

Peter westernized his subjects by using taxation and implementing new laws. Some examples are below:

  • He put a high tax on beards and Oriental dress to force the people to adopt Western dress.
  • He freed women from forced seclusion. He modernized the calendar, simplified the alphabet, unified the currency, and introduced universal taxation.
  • Russia's first modern hospitals and medical schools were built by Peter.
  • He encouraged the rise of private industry and the expansion of trade.
  • He forced education upon his officers and members of his court because many could not read.

Thus by implementing and enforcing these changes upon his subjects and gaining warm water ports for his navy, during his reign, Peter first achieved a sea to sea empire.

Peter died in 1725. His work survived almost half a century of incompetent rulers. Succession after him was unsteady, and the male Romanov line died out under Elizabeth (ruled 1741-62).

The name was nevertheless kept by her successor, Peter III, a member of the German House of Holstein-Gottorp. His widow, a member of the German House of Anhalt-Zerbst, ruled as Catherine II, who came to the throne in 1762.

She again took up the task of reform. She was widely respected for her charm and intelligence, but her casual love affairs with men younger than she made her notorious.

Romanov Dynasty
For further study on Peter the Great, the Romanov Dynasty, and Russia in general, follow the links below. You will find these sites, informative and educational.

Other sites
To learn more about the Russian Monarchy after Catherine the Greats death, visit the Royal Russia web site.

Imperial Russian Journal
This is the only journal to cover the Russian Monarchy. In its fourth year of publication, covers the Monarchy from the 18th and 19th century. This page gives your subscription information.

Treasures of the Czars
The Moscow Kremlin Museum contains graphics of artifacts from the Russian Monarchy. Enrich your knowledge of Russian history by visiting this site.

Resources
Portions of this article were drawn from Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia Copyright © 1993, 1994 Compton's NewMedia, Inc.


Treaty of St. Petersburg, 5 May 1762 - History

© Tony Hyman, all rights reserved

1760 Pierre Lorillard opens snuff mill in New York City. Quickly expands to other tobacco products.

1761 Spanish King re-enacts ban on selling Cuban tobacco or cigars to foreign powers. After the brief British take-over of Havana in 1762, the ban was reestablished in 1764.

1762 England captures Havana for nine months, during which more international shipping went through Cuba than in two and a half centuries of Spanish control. The entire world got introduced to Cuban tobacco, exotic hardwoods, and fruits. Spain got Cuba back by treaty but learned that once a pleasure is known to the world, it is very difficult to hide or control.

1763 British Lt. Col. Israel Putnam returned to his farm in CT from occupation of Havana. He brought cigar tobacco seed and more than 30,000 cigars . How much seed? No one knows, but tobacco is one of the world’s tiniest seeds. Enough to plant 500 acres will fit inside a lipstick tube. It takes 300,000 of these dust-size seeds to weigh an ounce).

1764 Spanish King re-establishes ban on selling Cuban tobacco or cigars to foreign powers.

1767 Casanova visits Spain and is introduced to cigarettes, called cigarros.

1770’s Quality of New England tobacco steadily improves as Havana seed adjusts to the climate change.

1770 William Demuth opens tobacconist shop at 114 East King St., Lancaster, PA.

1770 Cigar smoking begins to catch on in New England and major North American port cities . Cigars were cheap and almost entirely home made “paste cigars” so called because wrapper was glued to keep it from unwrapping. These were generally rolled by farm wives. Cigars were sold by their husbands or traded to local merchants or Yankee wagon peddlers.

1770 W.H. Laverack opens a Chemist’s Dispensary (drug store) which in the mid 1800’s advertises “a choice selection of well-matured cigars, at reasonable prices, always on hand” in the town of Malton .

1770 A. Hillen established (the Red Anchor Cigar Factory) in Delft, Holland according to its label, alternately listed as 1772 on other of the company’s cigar labels.

1772 The Cuban governor sets up Pinar del Rio as a separate Cuban Province and commissioned Jose Varea to locate a site for a capital city for the province.

1773 Pipe smoking falling out of fashion among the English gentry.

1774 The town of Pinar del Rio founded in Western Cuba became the Provincial capitol of the newly created Province of Pinar del Rio, home of the Vuelta Abajo region, already known for quality leaf. Travel is very difficult in Cuba. Roads are horrendous and remain that way until U.S. economic control of the island in the 1900’s. Tobacco is transported 40 or more miles by oxcart over muddy rutted roads.

1775 Virginia shipped 400± million pounds to tobacco in the early 1770’s, 150 million of which went to England, the remainder to the rest of Europe. At the start of the Revolution “Virginia” consisted of present day WV, KY, OH, IN, IL, MI, WI and MN. Each of those future states grew tobacco.

1775 R. and J. Hill open tobacco works at the Spinet House, London. Exact date the company started making cigars is unknown.

1776 US colonies declare independence from England. Tobacco growers were in perpetual debt to British merchants. Taxes were heavy. Tobacco helped finance the Revolution by serving as collateral for French loans.

1778 Edwards, Goodwin and Company Ltd ., established in Liverpool, England, as buyers, packers and importers of Empire, American and Oriental “and all other leaf tobaccos.” Still in business 175 years later.

1779 Jonathan Carver, Esq ., recommended the British should plant New England tobacco in England because of its hardiness and strong taste, which the English preferred.

1779 Peter Wendler , a German painter living in Italy, allegedly received a five year contract from the Pope to make cigars.

1780 H. Stevens & Co.Tobaccos Ltd established in Salisbury, England, as manufacturer of snuff and pipe tobaccos. Still in business 175 years later.

1781 Spanish King begins a 100 year long monopoly of tobacco growing and cigar manufacture in the Philippines (lifted in 1882). Philippine cigars, usually called Manillas, are far more popular than US cigars in Europe and Asia. Relatively few of the billions of U.S. cigars made annually were ever exported. Manillas were especially popular throughout Asia.

1783 Treaty of Paris officially ends the Revolutionary War.

1783 Cigars are being imported into Boston from the West Indies (Cuba and Jamaica). (earliest confirmed mention of commercial importing of cigars from the Caribbean I have found so far)

1783 British Parliament studies tobacco and smuggling and comes to conclusion that their laws were ineffectual. Smugglers could afford to lose 60% of their shipments and still make substantial profit. Remind you of something today? New enforcement laws resulted in collecting taxes on an additional 1,000,000 pounds of tobacco in 1784. After only two years of enforcement, the English treasury showed a surplus of one million pounds sterling thanks to tobacco taxes. Hmmm? Any lessons there for contemporary situations?

1784 Government-owned tobacco factory in Seville reported as also making cigarettes. When exactly they began is not known but the Spanish are known to have been smoking cigarettes for a century.

1784 Austrian government takes over management of the tobacco monopoly which previously they had rented out. The government administered cigar and tobacco factories in Hainburg (Austria), Ferstenfeld (Styria), Milan and Venice (Italy), Trent and Schwarz (Tyrol), Sedlitz (Bohemia), Goeding (Moravia) and Winiki (Galicia). Approximately 7,000 workers supplied 1,000 wholesalers and 30,000 retail dealers.

1784 H.C. Lloyd & Son open tobacco works in Exeter, England . Begin cigar production at unknown date.

1784 R. Lloyd & Sons open tobacco works in London, England . Begin cigar production at unknown date. Later become part of Cope Brothers cigar and cigarette operation.

1785 Baker & Co. begins business in Winchester, PA, as wholesale grocer. Still around in 1900.

1786 Explorer Sebastian Cobb reports Kayuga Indians growing 60 acres of tobacco near present day Elmira, NY. Wrote to his sister in NH that he was considering becoming a tobacco planter too. The area between Elmira and Binghamton became a significant cigar-tobacco region called “Big Flats.”

1787 An 18 line poem about cigars (and a shorter one about pipes) are published in THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OR REPOSITORY OF ANCIENT AND MODERN FUGITIVE PIECES, PROSE AND POETICAL , a magazine published in Philadelphia, a copy of which is in the Museum.

1787 Jesuit priest Joseph Och returns to Europe after thirty years traveling through Spanish North America. His report includes the following about Mexico: “In the city I was shown a trade completely unknown to me. Here over 10,000 poor girls and 5,000 young men earn their livelihood by making paper tobacco pipes, the length of a finger, which are called cigarros . The width of these pieces of paper are about the thickness of a finger. Into these they roll finely grated smoking tobacco.” This appears to be the earliest mention of cigarette production in Mexico. Cigarette-smoking Mexicans brought the habit to California and the Southwest. Cigarro is the Cuban word for cigarette. Cigars are tobacos.”

1787± The best cigarette paper was made by a factory in Valencia, Spain, and sold to the public by booksellers and stationers in the form of small booklets called libritos .

1788 First cigar factory in Germany established in Hamburg by Hans Heinrich Schlottmann, who learned the craft in Spain. Hamburg became one of Europe’s cigar making centers.

1788 Only three stage coaches a week make the 170 mile trip from Boston to New Haven. Commerce in the colonies is starting to boom after the Revolution and by 1796, more than 20 coaches will be making the trip.

1788 Carreras Tobacco Co., Ltd. established in London NW . Builds the self-proclaimed “world’s most hygienic tobacco factory” in 1926.

1789 The second law passed by the first Congress of the United States is a protectionist tax on imported goods. One of the protected infant industries was cigar making. Imported cigars paid a tax of 6¢ a pound, which works out to roughly 18¢ to 30¢ per 1,000 segars.

1789 Consumer size boxes of 100 cigars are offered for sale in a NYC newspaper, May 1789. (earliest confirmed mention of a box of 100 I have found so far)

1789 P. Lorillard begins running an illustrated newspaper display ad offering common cigars in the August issue of the NY Advertiser . Lorillard later described this ad as this the first cigar ad in America, but another company was already running a similar ad when Lorillard placed theirs. The ad can be seen in the Lorillard and Tin exhibit.

1789 Spanish government published manual on proper growing and handling of tobacco, including instructions regarding cigar manufacture (according to Mara ( see bibliography) , but Mara’s mention of binder leaf is of questionable accuracy as are a number of his assertions regarding bands and boxes).

1789 Desola & Co. , cigar manufacturers and importers of Cuban cigars and cigarettes, established on Grosvenor Square in London, England .

1790 Hudden & Co . open first tobacco/cigar factory in Bristol, England , on Avon Street.

1790 W.A. & A.C. Churchman open first tobacco/cigar factory in Ipswich, England , on Portman Road.

1790 Hignett Bros & Co . open cigar factory at Whitechapel in Liverpool, England .

1790 John Hunter , a London surgeon, began importing leeches, thus founding the predecessor of Hunters & Frankau, leading importers and merchants in the British cigar industry for two centuries. Numerous mergers, acquisitions and name changes over the years. Still around in 2008.

1791 Alexander Hamilton’s report to congress on the state of manufacturing in the US includes tobacco manufacture as one of the nation‘s basic industries

1791 President Mirabeau of France and the National Asse mbly retracted the ban on growing and selling tobacco.

1792 Leaf tobacco was exported from NH, MA, RI, CT, NY, NJ, PA, DE, MD, VA, NC, SC, and GA. The leading export states, accounting for roughly 3/4 of the total, were Virginia and Maryland. Manufactured tobacco (snuff, pipe tobacco, chaw, cigars) was shipped from MA, NY, PA, MD, VA, SC and GA with Massachusetts accounting for 92% of the cigar total.

1792 John Hancart of Philadelphia begins building his own processing machinery for a tobacco and snuff manufactory, the products of which are sold in his wholesale and retail tobacconist shop opened in 1794.

1792 Samuel Gawith opens snuff mill and cigar factory at the Canal Works in Kendal, England. His company became the foundation of a long-lived snuff “empire” of three other Kendal snuff-makers including Illingworths Snuffs Ltd.

1792 E. Jonas & Bros . established in London as importers, exporters and dealers in tobacco leaf. Later became Jonas, Elliott & Co. Ltd., still in business in 1950s.

1794 US Government (the 1st Congress) passed an excessive tax on snuff, then regarded as “a rich man’s luxury.” Manufacturers in Philadelphia vigorously fought against the tax and it was rescinded after two years.

1794 James Madison argues against a tobacco tax because it falls heaviest on the poor, day laborers and common seamen. Madison calls tobacco an “innocent gratification.”

1794 John Hancart announces (via an ad in the Philadelphia AMERICAN DAILY ADVERTISER ) the opening of his cigar and tobacco factory making common cigars as well as snuff, pipe tobacco and chewing tobacco in Germantown, PA, outside Philadelphia. “Orders from any part of the continent” are solicited. Ad is on Museum display.

1794 Justus van Maurik opens cigar factory in Valkenswaard, the Netherlands. Original brand was Justus van Maurik and is believed to be the oldest Dutch brand of cigars. Company still exists in 2009, but as part of the Swedish Match conglomerate.

1795 Adkin & Sons open cigar factory on Dingley Road, London, England.

1795 Ireland imports 2.5 pounds of tobacco per person.

1796 US Government taxes locally made snuff at the rate of 60% of the selling price. The snuff tax was snuffed after two years because the cost of collecting it was more than the revenue raised.

1796 Most of the cigars smoked in U.S. come from the U.S. or Europe. Most cigars advertised in U.S. claim to be from “Havana.”

1796 725 ships enter the port of Boston. Boston’s principal exports are rum, beer, loaf sugar, rope and cord, sail cloth, playing cards, pot and pearl ashes, wall paper, hats, silver plate, glass, tobacco and chocolate. Boston is home to 30 distilleries, 2 breweries, 8 sugar houses and 11 rope and cord makers.

1796 The New York Weekly Magazine for Wednesday, August 24, 1796 noted: “There is nothing, perhaps, more pernicious, or more destructive to the health of man, than the present practice of segar-smoaking. It is of all others the most disagreeable, as well as the most obnoxious thing in use. ”

1798 Boston passes law against segar smoking on public streets. Both cigar and pipe smokers are restricted to Boston Commons. The law wasn’t repealed until 1880.

1798 Casanova, in his memoirs, describes cigarettes, an early mention of them in print.

1800± Don Francisco Cabañas (various dates from 1797 - 1810) was approved by King to make and export Cuban cigars. When his daughter took over upon his death, the brand was renamed HIJA DE CABANAS Y CARBAJAL , then around the 1860’s shortened to H. DE CABANAS Y CARBAJAL .

1800 An English writer described the paper in which quantities of loose tobacco were wrapped often contained printed poems, riddles or “grotesque heads, chiefly African.” Designs were probably shop idiosyncratic. Who made the first one, and where? ¿Quien sabe? (Who knows? Said with the proper Latin shoulder shrug it also means “Who cares?”)

1801 Connecticut cigar tobacco production reaches 20,000 pounds.

1803 Hang Tai & Fungs Tobacco Co. Ltd. established in Hong Kong. Supplied leaf tobacco, paper, foil, sprays, and other tobacco related supplies throughout the Far East for 150+ years.

1804 At the time of the Louisiana purchase, tobacco production had spread up the Mississippi to Natchez, and New Orleans was shipping 2,000 hogsheads a year, mostly to France, but also to Cuba.

1804 Cuba imports 1,000,000 pounds of tobacco from US to keep up with European demand for cigars.

1804 Customs records from 1804 show the U.S. imported 4,000,000 cigars a year from Cuba, Hamburg, Amsterdam, and Florida.

1804 Protective tariffs designed to help the fledgling U.S. cigar industry were raised to $2 per box of 1,000 for cigars imported from Europe or the Caribbean.

1805 Dr. Waterhouse’s Lecture on the “Evil Effects of Cigarrs” [sic] published in Boston.

1805 Cuban economist Francisco de Arango y Parreno wrote a formidable treatise defending the idea of freeing the Cuban tobacco industry from the Royal monopoly.

1806 Ad on front page of Charleston (South Carolina) Courier seeks 3 cigar makers.

1807 The first electric-and-gas counter-top lighter was patented in London. A stream of hydrogen was ignited by a spark created by the discharge of an electrophorus, a disc of resin charged by rubbing it on cat-skin. Other similarly creative lighters quickly followed. See 1823.

1807 A German newspaper, Der Anzeiger, reports “When Spanish troops entered our city most of the soldiers were seen to be smoking tobacco rolled in paper.” Shortly thereafter, a Hamburg merchant began making cigarettes of black tobacco. They didn’t catch on..

1809 William Dobie sets up cottage business making snuff and roll tobacco in Paisley. Still around in 1953 as Four Square Tobaccos and Cigarettes, one of England’s largest independent tobacco manufacturers

1810 Bernardino Rencurrel founds export cigar factory in Cuba. He immediately files the first trademark registration in Cuba. Don Francisco Cabañas becomes the second to register a brand later the same year.

1810 Roswell Viets started a cigar factory in East Windsor, CT, and his brother Simeon [alt: Samuel] Viets started one in West Suffield, CT. Simeon/Samuel set up his cigar factory, by hiring a Cuban to teach [12?] local women to roll cigars. First employees are reported as Clarissa King and Sally Ingraham. Cigars rolled from a mix of local tobacco and cheapest grade of Cuban. Widely, and incorrectly, touted as first U.S. cigar factory.

1810 The 1810 census recorded 29,000,000 domestic cigars as having been made, mostly in Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, and Cincinnati. Small makers throughout NY, PA, and New England were not counted. See 1811 Philadelphia cigar maker’s ad in the exhibit of boxes containing 250 cigars.

1810 Frishmuth Bro. & Co . established in Philadelphia . Makers of sweet scented smoking tobacco.

1810 First patent in England for preserving food in tin, glass, pottery and other metal containers.

1811 Ads for consumer-size boxes of 100 cigars run in newsp apers in Boston. Have ad.

1811 The Secretary of State of the Spanish Royal Treasury recommends abolition of the monopoly.

1811 English tobacconists offer cigars banded with hand written epigrams, much like Chinese fortune cookies. Earliest recorded cigar bands.

1811 John Hunter, Morris & Elkan begin making cigars at St. Mary Axe, London, England. Become importers of Cuban, Mexican and Philippine cigars and Egyptian cigarettes.

1812 Common cigars sold for between $1 and $2 per thousand wholesale, and retailers did their own boxing, ban ding and branding. Better quality cigars, known as half-Spanish brought $4 per 1,000 and sold retail for a penny.

1812 Thomas Kennett establishes a plant in New York to hermetically seal seafood, vegetables, fruits and meats in glass containers.

1813 A C olonel in the British Grenadier Guards dismisses a complaint about short rations during the 1812 war against France and the United States, saying his soldiers thrived on a diet of “brandy and cigars.” graphic illustration

1814 To keep tobacco from drying out, it was frequently wrapped in skins dampened with various substances, including stale urine according to a contemporary writer.

1814 English writer (in 1839) says of 1814 that good cigars were unobtainable except from ship captains arriving from the West Indies. However, trans-shipping of cigars from the U.S. to Cuba and back to the U.S. was relatively common.

1815 The importation of Spanish cigars into England finally officially permitted, after the Peace of 1815. Import taxes were high.

1815 L. Hirst & Son open cigar factory in Waterloo House, at Kirk Gate, in Leeds, England.

1816 Parliamentary House of Commons committee decides to continue ban on growing tobacco in England.

1817 Spanish King abolished the monopoly and decreed freedom of cultivation and trade. Cuban cigar and tobacco production begins to flourish even tho a large export tax levy accompanied permission to sell cigars and tobacco around the world.

1818 S. Fuguet becomes early exporter of cigars and tobacco from Havana. When his sons joined the company the name was changed to S. Fuguet & Sons. The company opened offices in Philadelphia in 1828. At some time prior to 1885, the Fuguets merged their assets with those of Henry B. Grauley, owner of the State House Cigar Mfg. Co., Factory 659 (1st Dist.) at 527 Chestnut St. in Philadelphia. The company was known as Grauley and Fuguet and had 35 rollers with an output of roughly 9,000 cigars a day. By 1893 the new company was operated by [sons?] S. and B. Grauley, who continued to import and manufacture cigars under the Grauley name. Letterhead 1895

1818 Robert Roberts & Sons open tobacco works on Finsbury Pavement, London, England. Begins cigar making at unknown date.

1818 Tervakoski Osakeyhtio establishes as a paper mill in Finland, specializing in the international market.

In 1952 they offered “A large, graded assortment of cigarette paper of the utmost purity.”

1819 Sir Walter Scott, a heavy smoker, decides to limit himself to one cigar a day

1820 An English “gentleman” was expected to keep on hand a selection of cigars and pipe tobaccos to offer visitors.

1820 Article in London magazine claims most Cuban cigars sold in England were frauds, made locally. Every indication confirms that was the case.

1820 Blome’s Cigar factory already operating in Glastonbury, Connecticut. Sold in 1846 to Fred Curtis.

1820 Acker, Merrall & Condit, wholesale grocers, founded in NYC. Distributed food, liquor and cigars until bankruptcy in 1932.

1820 Carter, Hodges & Co. opens cigar factory on Friday Street in London, England.

1821 Parliament decides to emphasize le gal provisions in place against adulteration as tobacconists were abusing provisions allowing small amounts of coloring and flavoring.

1820’s Cigar and pipe tobacco grown in KY and TN was exported to world markets through New Orleans.

1820’s Wooden carved highlanders in uniform begin replacing black boys as the “cigar store Indian” of choice in England and Scotland. Cigar store figures were manufactured doll size to larger than life-size.

1821 First commercial lithography establishment in NYC.

1821 Austrians smoke 1 1/4 pounds of domestically manufactured tobacco per person in pipes and cigars. Tobacco is almost all from Transylvania and Hungary. Consumption does not include tobacco smuggled in, an estimated half pound per person.

1823 According to THE TIMES, AND HARTFORD ADVERTISER, 12,478,000 segars were imported last year, while the domestic output, made from foreign tobacco, was of “a much greater amount.” The paper estimated that about 50,000,000 cigars were consumed in the U.S. in 1822.

1823 Despite their popularity, only 26 pounds of cigars were reported as legally imported into England. Key word is legally, as taxes were high, smuggling was rewarding.

1823 Lord Byron becomes the unofficial poet laureate of the cigar thanks to The Island and the lines “Yet thy true lovers more admire by far Thy naked beauties--Give me a cigar!”

1823 Banks & James open cigar factory on Ford Street in Coventry, England.

1823 An Austrian Professor invents the Dobereiner Lamp, a reasonably efficient counter-top lighter using hydrogen gas ignited by platinum. Worked well enough to become popular with tobacconists throughout Europe.

1824 Louisiana Acadians, notably Pierre Chenet , develop a new type of pipe and cigarette tobacco called Perique , created by multi-month curing of foot-long twists of leaf under pressure in its own juices. Very strong, it was unsuitable for cigars, and blended in small quantities for other uses. Always in very limited supply, it was expensive, selling for $1 a pound.

1824 The first cigarette factory is established in France.

1824 P.J. Carroll & Co. open tobacco works on Church Street in Dundalk, Ireland. Begin cigar production at a later unknown date. One of few Irish cigar factories.

1825 Cigar tobacco warehouses established in CT. It is reported that Connecticut cigars were called Windsor Particulars, Long Nines, Supers and Sixes. Perhaps true, but I have found no original material to support this possibly single source claim. I have one reference referring to cigars as “sixes.”

1825 Lewis Bremer’s Sons, importers and packers of Havana tobacco opened in Philadelphia 322-324 No. 3rd Street.

1825 Joseph Kirk opens the first cigar & stogie factory in Wheeling, West Virginia.

182 5 John Pendelton imports French lithograph machinery and an experienced operator into Boston, sets up shop.

1825 Allen Taylor granted first patent in the U.S. for process for making tin cans. Thomas Kennett applies for patent to use tin containers for the preservation of food.

1826 Ohio be gins exporting a Maryland type tobacco called “Eastern Ohio Export” tobacco. Rich soils of Ohio and “Western U.S.” are particularly well suited to the soil-depleting tobacco crop, producing heavy leaves popular in the European market.

1826 to 1830 Cuba averages 245,097 boxes of cigars exported annually. Boxes contain 1,000 cigars.

1826 In Europe cigars are divided into five types: Havanas, Imitation Havanas, First Quality, Second quality and Third Quality. After taxes, Imitation Havanas cost equivalent of $3.50 per box of 100 at retailers. Lowest quality retailed for a penny or less.

1826England: Morris & Sons, cigarmakers, open in London. “Three or four small factories were in existence at the time.”

1827 Weyman & Brothe r go into business as manufacturers of snuff and chewing tobacco in Pittsburg .

1827 Spanish taxes on Cuban farming and manufacture were eliminated, but taxes on leaf export and cigars remain. Worldwide acceptance of leaf and cigars made the industries profitable despite taxes.

1827 Luis Caire set up Cuba’s first Lithographic company: Imprenta Litografica Habanera . It is claimed that Cuban lithographers began printing labels in color two years before those in the U.S.

1827 Jaime Partagas Ravelo’s first Havana cigar factory is founded.

1827 Full color satirical print depicting Cuban factory flavoring cigars with vomit, sold in London. (earliest illustration of a cigar factory I have seen so far)

1827 J. Stafford, Son & Oswin open cigar factory on Upper Charles Street in Leicester , England .

1 827 Englishman John Walker invents the friction match, making smoking more mobile. He refused to patent his invention and quit making and selling them after only three years, leaving the field wide open to entrepreneurs, a goodly number of whom became wealthy. Samuel Jones copied Walker, renamed the matches “lucifers” and began advertising them in 1829. See 1832.

1828 Though planted earlier, it isn’t until now that PA cigar tobacco crop reaches commercial importance.

1828 Tobacco planting introduced into Florida.

1828 D.L. Trujillo begins rolling cigars in Havana . Soon thereafter opens his own factory producing Flor de D.L. Trujillo, a brand made for more than 70 years in Havana and later in New York , and Key West .

1829 S. Burkhalter & Co. begins business in New York City as importer and wholesaler of groceries and, at some later date, proprietors of the Excelsior Cigar Factory.

1829 Cutting British import taxes in half put cigars in the reach of a great many more English smokers. Importation of cigars multiplies eight-fold.

1829 Spanish factory in Seville begins hiring gypsy women, often young teens, as cigar rollers.

1829 The Austrian tobacco monopoly brought in $3,300,000 into the treasury. In the next seven years that figure doubled to $7,525,000, reflecting the sharp rise in demand. Almost everyone in Austria smokes or snuffs. Meerschaum pipes are preferred and become a matter of great pride. Shops offer a wide range of cigars.

1829 Combination Cigar Co. founded in New Ipswich, NH (still around in 1889): business card

1829 [?] Baldwin founded a machine shop in Richmond, VA, as manufacturer of agricultural machinery. In 1849 will become long-lived Cardwell Machine Co. specializing in tobacco processing equipment. Company still around in 2000.

1829 David G. Yuengling established the Eagle Brewing Company in Pottsville, PA, making beer for the area’s coal miners. The name of the brewery was changed to Yuengling in 1876. It remains the oldest US brewery still in the hands of the founding family.

1829 Committee of the House of Commons acknowledges that 3/4th of the tobacco consumed in England is smuggled in, and that laws and government agents cannot suppress smuggling as long as taxes twelve times the value of the tobacco are being charged.

I’d like to quit and go back home .

1830 254,000 pounds of cigars legally imported into England, up 10,000x in just a few years thanks to sharp reduction in import taxes. That’s roughly 30,000,000 cigars.

1830 Commercial lithography introduced into Baltimore by former sign painter George Endicott.

1830 Jose Garcia's MI FAMA POR EL ORBE VUELTA brand created.

1830 Pottsville, PA, advertises in Boston newspaper, asking for a cigar maker to take up residence.

1830 A.J. Foble, owner of a cigar store in Cambridge, MD, purchased a fully painted showfigure of the Roman god Mercury from the Philadelphia studio of of William Rush, a Revolutionary War vet and the nation’s most renown carver for more than half a century. The figure remained on display until 1926 when it was donated to the Maryland Historical Society.

1830 John Player , ultimately one of England’s most important tobacco personages, opens tobacco works in Nottingham, England. Begins cigar production at unknown date. Most famous for cigarettes. Ultimately John Player & Sons later a branch of the Imperial Tobacco combine.

1831 Seven year old Adam Valentine begins working as a stripper in Abraham Harner’s cigar factory in Rehrersburg, PA. Two years later, age nine, he became a roller. At age 16 he moved to Womelsdorf, PA, married at 20, and started his own cigar factory at 24. It made cigars for 100+ years.

1831 “Several” cigar factories were in operation in Suffield, CT, and factories had been established here and there throughout the tobacco regions of Connecticut. Cigars made in New England trade at $1.00 to $1.50 per 1,000 to peddlers. They are generally a mix of domestic local tobacco and low grade Cuban.

1831 to 1835 Cuba averages 99,763 boxes of cigars exported annually. Boxes contain 1,000 cigars.

1830’s Cigars are very fashionable in Europe and US cities. Pipe smokers carry tobacco pouches when out of the house. Coffee houses are popular smoking centers.

1832 Porfirio Larrañaga starts factory according to box.

1834 Ignacio Larrañaga starts factory according to Mara’s book.

1832 W.T. Davies & Sons opens cigar factory on Canal Street in Chester, England .

1832 The Brown Medicine Company founded in Erie, PA. Makers of Smart Weed Extract and Dr. Carter’s Family Medicines group. Dr. Carter’s brand name lasts 100+ years.

1832 A French chemistry student, Charles Sauria, added phosphorus to the friction match creating the first strike-anywhe re type. He was unable to raise money to patent his idea and it was almost immediately copied by the Germans, and quickly spread throughout Europe. Matches sputter and spark and are somewhat dangerous to clothing and furniture. See 1855.

1833 to 1840 During this period 638,857 boxes containing 1,000 foreign cigars each are imported into the United States. Total value only $7,000,000, about a penny apiece. That’s more expensive than it sounds as most Americans earned less than $2 a week in cash.

1833 Time zones standardized due to needs of growing railroad industry. Andrew Jackson becomes the first sitting President to ride a railroad, tho John Quincy Adams (out of office) rode sooner.

1833 “It is past all doubt that three-quarters of the tobacco consumed in Ireland, if not more than one-half of all that is consumed in Great Britain, is smuggled into the country to avoid the high duties (taxes). Nearly all the cigars (so perfectly convenient for the contraband trade, and on which there is a nine shilling duty per pound) are smuggled ashore.” The official tables of Cuba and England show that, in one year while Cuba exported nearly 10,000,000 pounds of cigars to England, only 141,000 pounds paid the English duty.

1833 CT Broadleaf, first great US cigar tobacco, developed about this time from MD seed (which originally came from Havana). 90 years of crop expansion and use follow.

1833 A carelessly discarded cigar butt in the planing mill led to a fire which destroyed 72 of the 74 buildings in Cumberland, PA.

1833± The value of ‘sweating’ cigar tobacco discovered accidentally. Think of it as similar to creating a tightly packed compost pile. Growers and warehousemen quickly begin sweating all cigar tobacco which improved it greatly, beginning the era of fine tobacco from CT. By the 1840’s sweated tobacco replaced Cuban in most cigars made in the northeastern U.S.

1834± About this time, US tobacco farmers began selling their crops to leaf warehouses rather than making the cigars themselves. Local warehouses grew in importance selling to larger warehouses in cities, or directly to traveling buyers representing factories. Large commercial warehouses began springing up in New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore.

1834 Ignacio Larrañaga registers the brand POR LARRANAGA in Havana. Large chest, other boxes.

1834 Asian Journal magazine reports the Spanish King’s Royal cigar factory outside of Manilla employs 4,000 women in the manufacture of cigars and 1,000 men in the manufacture of cigarettes . Though highly prized worldwide (selling in Europe and Asia for higher prices than Cuban cigars), most of the factory’s output was smoked in the Philippines.

1834 NY Sun reports the Spanish King’s Royal cigar factory located a mile west of Mexico City is six acres in size and employs between 3,000 and 6,000 people, “the greater portion of whom reside within the walls.” The government's wholesale outlet in Mexico City is supplied by “300 mules constantly conveying the cigars packed in bundles of 1,000 or in large boxes holding 50,000.” A 1787 Jusuit visitor described 10,000 “poor girls” making cigarettes in the factory.

1834 William F. Comly & Son , cigar auctioneers, opens at 27 S. 2nd St., Philadelphia . In 1910, they advertise they sold 14,000,000 cigars between 1905-1910.

1834 England imports 38,000,000 pounds of tobacco from the U.S. and 700,000 pounds from the rest of the world. 666 people are employed in England, Ireland and Scotland in tobacco manufacture. England exported 13,000,000 pounds of manufactured tobacco products.

1834 Thorns, Son & Co. opens cigar factory in Boston, England .

1835 England’s cost of collecting 630,000 pounds sterling in tobacco taxes was 800,000 pounds sterling.

1835 First cigarmaker’s Union established in London.

1835 To meet worldwide demand for Cuban tobacco 35,000 tobacco farms (vegas) are under cultivation in Cuba. Farms are usually 33 acres or less, half of which is devoted to food crops. Plantings of high quality leaf in Western Cuba (Pinar del Rio / Vuelta Abajo) greatly expanded during 1830’s.

1835 Ed Weber begins litho business in Baltimore . In 1853 his company becomes A. Hoen & Co. , the largest printer of smoking and chewing tobacco labels in the western hemisphere.

1835 John Putney & Son go into the business of manufacturing cedar, mahogany and other general and slide-lid boxes for the cigar, tobacco and enema trade. They also milled and sold fine lumber in London .

1835 to 1840 Cuban cigar exports way up, averaging 790,286 boxes of 1,000 cigars a year during this period. In part this reflects higher quality and availability thanks to increased production in Vuelta Abajo.

1836 The Spanish King’s Royal cigar factory in Seville employs 1,000 male rollers and 1,600 females who make approximately 650,000 cigars a day. The smaller Royal factory in Malaga makes 140,000 a day. They are paid piece rates and a top roller makes about 15 English cents a day, about what two or three cigars will sell for in London. “Home made Havannahs” (English made) sell for 3¢ or less in England.

1836 An Austrian private citizen who wants to import Spanish or Cuban cigars rather than buy from the Austrian state monopoly must obtain a permit and pay a fee. So many applications were made that the government discontinued the practice and began importing better grade cigars than those made locally. Wholesalers to whom the government sells are permitted to make 1.5% profit and retailers from 2% to 10% depending on the product, quality and demand. Wounded war veterans are given preference when the government sells retailer’s licenses.

1836 John Wood & Son established cigarette factory in London, perhaps at 23-25 Queen Victoria St. Original factory possibly located on Southwark Street, S.E. Records unclear.

1836 The port of New York handled almost 2,500,000 pounds of Ohio tobacco.

1836 Berdan & Co. , “largest independent handler of cigars” in the U.S., established in Toledo, Ohio . Still in business in early 1900’s.

1836 Shipwrights become the first trade Union in the United States to secure a 10 hour day, but only on repair work, not new construction.

1836 B.H. Manus established in the Netherlands as tobacco wholesaler. Widely known throughout the world, especially in the European government-operated tobacco production systems. The company becomes important in the introduction of Sumatran tobacco into the U.S. forty years later.

1837 Ramon and Antonio Allones arrive in Cuba. Nee reports their cigar brand starting in 1845 .

1837 One-quarter of all the tobacco consumed in England and Scotland is smuggled in to avoid duties or because it comes from politically incorrect ports. Import tax was paid on 140,000 pounds of cigars imported from Europe and Cuba. That translates to about 17,000,000 cigars.

1837 England: Though cigar smoking was rising steadily, some critics considered smoking a cigar while walking down the street to be “fast” behavior in England.

1837 English writer says “ No people in the world smoke worse tobacco, or pay so dear for it, as the people of this country. The very worst kinds of leaf, which nowhere else could find a market, meet with a ready sale among the English. ”

1837 Andrew Jackson proclaimed a ten hour day for the Philadelphia Navy Yard.

1837 The city of Chicago is incorporated. The United States is slowly moving Westward.

1838± Joseph Frankau founds J. Frankau & Co . in Havana . Frankau later joins forces with Herman Upmann, instrumental in managing the brand and factory until 1916.

1838 F. Riehl’s Sons , manufacturers of cigars and dealer in wholesale tobaccos, founded in Buffalo, NY .

1838 Solomon F. Hess opened the doors of S.F. Hess & Co . in Rochester, NY . By the 1880s he manufactured tobacco, cigars and cigarettes and wholesaled leaf tobacco from his warehouse at 57-63 Exchange Street and a 5 story building at 1-5 Pine Street. IKn 1885 200 Espanolia cigars sold for $5 and 100 Pinodas/Pinocles[sp?] for $3. In 1898 [son? grandson?] F. Judson Hess was company treasurer.

1838 L. Warnick Brown established as manufacturer of tobacco in Utica, NY . Company is still around in 1914.

1838 Florida’s “Old Speckled Leaf” tobacco was an important cigar wrapper leaf, renown for its “broad, silky, beautifully spotted leaf.” Production abandoned after the Civil War . After the Centennial, Cuban and Sumatran tobaccos become more important as wrappers, forming the basis of Florida’s cigar industry.

1838 The first high quality cigar tobacco planted in the Miami Valley in southwestern Ohio . Tobacco was more profitable than wheat or corn and production spread quickly.

1838 JOB French cigarette papers first manufactured.

1838 Tur Hermanos open factory in Zaragoza, Spain , specializing in licorice for the tobacco trade.

1838 RIFLE and DOS AMIGOS Cuban cigars offered for sale in Boston newspaper ad, the earliest mention of Cuban cigars by brand name that I have yet found in an advertisement.

1839 LA CARONA [sic] is named on a shipping manifest from this year, six years before the date the current company uses as its founding. See label in Cuba exhibit

1839 NYC newspaper carries an ad offering DOS AMIGOS, LA UNION, INDIAN CASSADORA, NINA, LA PREVIDA, LA PRUTA, PRINCIPES PRUZ, REGALIA , G.R. and DE YARA brand cigars “at the sign of the Indian chief” adjoining the City Hospital at 321 Broadway.

1839 Use of charcoal as a fuel in the process of curing Southern US tobacco discovered to produce a sweet yellow tobacco useful for pipes and chewing, and later for cigarettes. Revolutionizes the non-cigar tobacco industry.

1839 Cuban government raises export tax on cigars to 50¢ per box (1,000) cigars.

1839 US imports tobacco from Cuba and Amsterdam primarily, some middle east, other quantities nominal. England imports cigar and smoking tobacco from all over the world including Virginia, Maryland, Colombia, Guatemala, India, Syria, etc. Cigar sellers are plentiful in England and US.

1839 Paper-wrapped cigarettes are also widely available in England, France and Russia, and in some countries taxed heavily. France manufactured cigarettes as part of the tobacco monopoly.

1839 From A Paper of Tobacco (1839): “The quantity of cigars legally imported into England bears no proportion to the quantity consumed. Most of the cigars sold as “real Havannahs” and ”prime old Cubas,” are manufactured in the neighbourhood of Goodman’s Fields where, alas, musty old leaves, which have, as the brokers’ circulars express it, “rather an oddish smell,” are converted into genuine Bengal cheroots.”

1839 John Hull and Lawrence Mooney brought lithography to Buffalo, NY . No evidence for cigar labels being printed in other than black ink on white paper.

1839 Cuba’s first school of lithography established in Havana by Francisco Cosnier. Cigar labels almost all printed in black ink on white and colored papers.

1839 The Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais founded a school for apprentices in tobacco work in Havana . The following year the school had 853 pupils, 178 of whom were training to become cigar makers.

1839 Horace R. Kelly goes into the cigar making business, manufacturing GEORGE THE FOURTH cigars in Key West, Florida. Advertises on 1890’s[?] celluloid change tray that he is “The oldest cigar firm in the U.S.” and has an office in New York and factory in Tampa. His Key West factory (#16) has 200 rollers in 1886, but he is not in Directories for 1893 or 1905.

1839 J.R. Freeman & Son open cigar factory on Fulham Road at Walham Green in London, England . Descendants later move factory to Cardiff. Introduced the KING SIX and MANIKIN brands. A century later they bought out J Frankau.

1839 The city of Philadelphia opened an official warehouse for the inspection of tobacco passing through. The first year it inspected 4,366 hogsheads, almost all from Kentucky.

1839 Cuba exports 637,558 cigars to the U.S.

1839 Puerto Rico grows 4,320,339 pounds of tobacco. Island’s principle products are sugar and coffee.

1839 Austrian tobacco monopoly sells $22,795,000 worth of tobacco and cigars. A box of “extra fine 4 inch cigars in polished maple boxes of 100” sell for $1.50 wholesale. Fine 3 1/4 inch cigars in polished walnut boxes of 100 sold for $1. “Ordinary loose long and short cigars” brought 62¢ per 100.

1840 First colored paper wrappers for bundles of cigarettes printed in Cuba. Are these the first worldwide? Black ink on colored paper were the first cigar labels. Soon, during this decade, colored inks on white paper appeared. See early Cuban colored printing in NCM exhibit of early Cuban labels .

1840 Austrian population is 37,000,000, about the same as France, double that of the U.S. Prussia had 14,000,000 and the German confederation about 27,000,000. Hungary, then part of Austria, consumes an amount of tobacco equal to half the entire U.S. crop. Hungarian tobacco travels to the capital from 150 to 200 miles over roads that even in the primitive U.S. would be considered impassable. This low grade tobacco sells for less than 1¢ per pound and makes up 5/6ths of Austrian-Hungarian consumption.

1840 Housatonic Valley, CT, begins growing better quality cigar tobacco. Total CT cigar tobacco production for year was 720,000 pounds.

1840 U.S. tobacco consumption equals 2 pounds for every man, woman and child. Highest in Mid-Atlantic and South, lowest in Northeast. U.S. population of the “Atlantic strip” was 8.6 million while that of the “Valley of the Mississippi” was 8.4 million. By 1840, consumption of manufactured tobacco had grown to the point where Virginia and North Carolina alone were home to 350 tobacco factories .

1840 Americans smoke approximately 80,000,000 Cuban cigars a year, some of which were made in the U.S., exported to Cuba, rebranded and shipped to the U.S. as Havana cigars. Called “bintoos” by the trade

because they’ve “been to” Cuba. Such transshipments were common with U.S. and European cigars. In 1840, $58,000 worth of U.S. leaf, stems and cigars were shipped to Cuba. Another $8 million in snuff was also sent. See details in exhibit.

1840 Around this time, U.S. demand for cigar rollers is so great they can find work anywhere. New towns routinely advertise in distant big city newspapers for them. Rollers were highly mobile craftsmen as all the tools a cigar maker needs fit in a knapsack.

1840 W.M. and M.M. Marsh start stogie factory in Wheeling, WV. Over time, their brand becomes MARSH WHEELING , the longest running US brand.

1840 Cuba : First PUNCH cigars by Juan Valle. The marca has many owners (1874-1940), eventually Fernandez Palacio y Cia. For the full story of Punch go Here . NCM has numerous items and knock-offs.

1840 Cuba: FIGARO with its distinctive wordy tri-lingual label is established by Julian Rivas. You can see their first box, competitors, cigarette labels, factory illus in other NCM exhibits.

1840 Cuban exports drop to 988,400 cigars to the United States.

1840 Hinsdale Smith & Co. established at 125 Maiden Lane in NYC as importers of Havana tobacco and packers of Connecticut leaf. By 1905, importers of Sumatra as well. Still in business in 1931.

1840 New York tobacconist John Anderson (Broadway near Thomas St.) hired sexy young Mary Rogers as clerk in a publicity move designed to attract men to his store. Rogers’ unsolved murder a year later became a pop-culture phenomenon known as “ The Mystery of the Beautiful Cigar Girl .”

1840? 1843? Cincinnati cigar makers form union.

1840± Connecticut tobacco was so profitable that it was planted in Maine, Vermont, Rhode Island and all over Connecticut. Although tobacco will grow nearly everywhere, it was soon discovered which areas produced the best leaf and production was discontinued elsewhere. Most tobacco was grown on small farms of ten acres or less. Methods of growing cigar tobacco have changed very little.

1840's Only 309 people were employed in England tobacco manufacture at the start of the decade. British cigar industry, like that of the U.S. and Cuba, undergoes great expansion (though still much smaller than the previously named).

1840 English adulteration laws are revised, now permitting anything to be added to tobacco except the leaves of trees, plants and herbs. Manufacturers and tobacconists added sugar, honey, molasses, licorice and other ingredients in such great quantities (40% to 60% by weight) that some writers described British smoking tobacco as more confectionary than tobacco.

1840 US Government extends ten hour day to all federal employees.

1841 Wm. Boardman went into business at 128 Asylum St. in Hartford, CT , as a jobber of “teas, coffees, spices. tpbaccos, cigars, etc.” In 1874, the company was named Wm. Boardman & Sons.

1841 Business communications be tween Europe and the U.S. improved thanks to development of regular mail service. Mail could go from New York or Boston to Vienna in a bit over two weeks, considered very fast.

1841 The Mercantile Agency established in Louisville, KY , as wholesalers of cigars and tobacco products. The company becomes successful, eventually establishing 245 branch offices.

1842 Traffic in Western tobacco (Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Kentucky) down the Mississippi River to New Orleans necessitates building of warehouse in Louisville capable of handling 20,000 hogsheads. In 1842, 5,131 hogsheads averaging 1,300 pounds each, were handled. An estimated 15,000 total tobacco hogsheads came down the Missouri and Mississippi rivers this year.

1842 England: So much was lost in taxes thanks to retail tobacco now mostly sugar by weight that Parliament reversed the adulteration permit by passing The Pure Tobacco Act , highly opposed by the tobacco industry and its vendors. Tax officials were given wide powers to sample tobacco and cigars at any time. Cabbage leaf cigars were discovered.

1842 Germany: Cigar factory district of Hamburg, one of Europe’s largest cigar centers, burns down. Large numbers of experienced owners, managers and rollers move to the United States, Cuba, Brazil and Mexico during the next decade . Fire illus and map of burned area available in NCHM

1843 (“early 1840’s”) Small flood of experienced lithographers immigrate from Germany to the US and Cuba. Commercial color lithography begins to catch on in both countries. Color cigar and cigarette labels reportedly printed in Cuba two or three years before US. Evidence appears to bear that claim. See examples of early Cuban experiments with color labels in the NCM exhibit.

1843 The United States exports 4,095,000 cigars to St. Petersburg, Russia.
The sender and recipient are not identified in reports. What and why would be interesting to learn, as the U.S. rarely exported domestic cigars.

1843 Tobacco production in Canada remains unsuccessful despite Parliamentary tax advantages.

1843 Charles Rugg (later & Son ) establishes cigar factory in Blairsville, PA HAVANA TOBIES label

1843 Kibbe Brothers Co. founded in Springfield, MA, as manufacturers and wholesale dealers in “Confectionery in all its branches also Dealers in Cigars.” The company was incorporated in 1892. In 1906 the company was booming, with a huge 5 story factory on Harrison Ave., but no Kibbes were still involved.

1844 The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal published “Influence of Smoking in Promoting Defecation”

which advocated smoking half a cigar in the morning to get things moving.

1844 Cuba exports almost 2,000,000 cajatillas de cigarros (packs of cigarettes) which in those days typically contained 50, though other sizes were available as well. The same brand of cigarettes could be packed in different size (10, 13, 15, 20, 25, 26 etc.) depending on the size and blend of the cigarette. Philippine packs typically held 30.

1844 Illinois ships 500,000 pounds of tobacco. Had been growing and experimenting since before the Revolution. Approximately one-half of the U.S. tobacco crop is grown West of the Allegheny Mountains.

1844 Louisville, Kentucky, becomes home to two large tobacco warehouses and five stemmeries.

1844 Clarksville, Tennessee, warehouses handled 9,000 hogsheads (weighing 800# to 1,000# each) of Mississippi river tobacco traffic.

1844 An Ohio tobacconist’s ledger shows he bought 21 different shapes and blends of cigars from a handful of independent cigar rollers who worked in their own homes, turning in cigars once a week. Nelson Nichols turned in 2500 simple “half Spanish” a week, while Frank Bells generally turned in less than 1,000 a week, but all were high grade Principes, Regalias, and Cubas. Nichols’ feat is prodigious no matter how poorly they may have been made. Bells’ output was average for a roller of very high grade cigars. The men who made large perfect cigars out of highest grade tobacco were paid the most per/1,000.

1844 In London, Cheroots from the Philippines sell for 20% more than cigars from Havana.

1844 H. UPMANN founded by Herman and August Upmann H probably is the abbreviation for Hermanos (brothers) tho other less logical claims are put forth. Company sold in 1922 to Londoners, who failed and resold in 1936 to Menendez, Garcia y Ca (who founded MONTECRISTO). You can see early labels, boxes all periods, including Upmann’s earliest labels in other exhibits.

1845 LA CORONA a new factory for an established brand? Tho the company uses 1845 as their date of founding, I own a shipping manifest showing someone shipping cigars to the US from Cuba under the name PARTAGAS in 1837 . Sold in 1882 then resold. In 1910 production was 40,000/per day. American Cigar Co. moved most, not all, production to the US in 1933/34. boxes before and after relocation, progressive for flap,

1845 PARTAGAS erects new factory building, still standing. Partagas (possibly established as early as 1827 though the company uses 1845 as their date of origin). Brand sold in late 1890’s, eventually owned by Ramon Cifuentes Llano. photos, boxes, ads

1845 C. del PESO & CO. established in Havana, purveyor to H.M. the King of Spain. Brands in the 1930’s include FLOR DE TOMAS GUTIERREZ, FLOR DE JUAN LOPEZ, and PIERROT Have 25/5 T Gutierrez box from the 1840s or 1850s. perhaps the company’s first marca.

1845 Huntoon & Gordon open factory in Providence, RI, makers of OLD COON [7329horse]

1845 Mr. Henry Floto manufactured Cigars in a Barn in Berlin, Somerset CO., PA. His son, Theodore, was still in business in 1870.

1845 CT broadleaf tobacco becomes important in cigar trade, and will be used commercially for 150+ years.

1845 Cigar tobacco introduced into Onondaga County (around Syracuse) and elsewhere in NY. Within a decade the County was producing a half-million pounds of cigar filler a year.

1845 J.W. Fergusson & Sons begin printing in Richmond, VA, ultimately specializing in tobacco labels.

1845 Dare, Stockman & Co. on Commercial Street begin importing Cuban cigars into London, England.

1845 Principal European ports handling tobacco were, in order, London (27,500,000 lbs), Amsterdam (26,000,000), Liverpool (17,000,000) and Bremen-Hamburg (13,600,000).

1845 European prima ballerina FANNY ELSSLER performs in Cuba and has a cigar named after her. Earliest celebrity label in NCHM collection.

1845 The French government tobacco monopoly, SEITA, goes into the cigarette business, selling 6,000,000 the first year. French women are addicted, an affliction that remains to this day. 1844 print of French woman requesting cigar not cigarette

1845 Duke of Wellington decries amount of cigar smoking among military officers, requests base commanders to ban smoking in mess halls and to discourage it elsewhere.

1846 RAMON ALLONES brand registered Sold in 1911 to Europeans, and again in 1927 to

Ramon Cifuentes, owner of PARTAGAS .

1846 EL PRINCIPE DE GALES brand founded in Cuba. Various, including 1st label What relationship this brand has to PRINCE OF WALES brand, also from the 1840’s, is unclear. 1840’s label

1846± First cigar maker establishes in the Tampa area. Plantation destroyed in hurricane of 1848. Rebuilds. Lasts for 20+ years.

1846 Sarony & Major lithography founded in NY City. Undergoes five name changes, ultimately becoming part of American Litho in 1892.

1846 J.M. McCord, New York cigar retailers, established.

1846 William S. Kimball & Co . founded in Rochester, NY. Maker of smoking and chewing tobacco and cigarettes. One of the founders of the tobacco trust.

1846 Frederick Curtis buys Blome’s Cigar Manufacturing and Tobacco Packaging Co. in Glastonbury, CT.

1846 The Eastern Counties Railway (England) establishes the first railroad smoking car.

1847 George S. Harris founds cigar label lithographic company in Philadelphia. Harris created more than 5,000 recorded cigar labels 1847-1892. Continued operation until closed by American Litho in 1900 . My personal favorite printer.

1847 E.B. Estes & Sons begin making turned & locked corner wooden boxes (BN and SBN): Plants in New York, Paris, Melbourne, and London. “The largest establishment of the kind in the world.”

1847 R.M. Bishop Cigar Co . founded in Cincinnati as cigarmakers and dealers in leaf tobacco. Later assigned Fact. 48, 1st Dist. Ohio as ID. In 1893, James Parker was President.

1847 Breneiser , establishes business as maker and wholesaler of cigars, Reading PA. Conflicting dates give in ads and literature. portrait box, letterhead, box, other

1847 Reading, PA, tobacconist Charles Maltzberger imported a wooden showfigure of Pocahontas carved by French woodcarver James leNoir and placed it inside his shop, where she smoked hr pipe continuously for more than 85 years. She does not appear to have survived the depression of the 1930s.

1848 Russell & Harris, makers of “continental paper bags” for the cigar industry founded at the corner of Robinson and Greenwich Streets, in New York City. “Cigars and tobacco bags a specialty.” Ad

1848 In Cuba, 232 factories turned out tobaccos (cigars) and 180 others made cigarros (cigarettes) and picadura (smoking tobacco), though very few offered the latter since scraps were much more valuable when used for cigarros (cigarettes).

1848 In Cuba, the Cabañas and the Gonzalez Carvajal families combined and reregistered Cabañas’s 50 year old cigar brand as Hija de Cabañas y Carvajal . which was soon shortened to H de Cabañas y Carvajal . Smokers continued to call is simply “Cabañas.”

1848 War in German principalities drives thousands of experienced cigar makers and printers to Cuba, Mexico, Brazil and the US., important for all four nation’s impending history.

1848 The predecessor of the long lived A.S. Valentine & Sons , makers of FLOR DE VALENTINE, TIRADOR and PAUL JONES cigars was established in Womelsdorf, PA , by 24 year old Adam Valentine. Company lasted 100+ years in the family for three generations. In 1905 located at 116-118 N. 7th St., Phila. Merged with Bennett, Sloan & Co. (New York) and Ibach & Rader (Newmanstown, PA) and Incorporated as A.S. Valentine & Sons in 1921. Sold out in 1954. Boxes, paper, ads, info

1848 John I. Nicks becomes first tobacconist in Elmira, NY . 1860 Ad

1848 A.M. Clime founded in Terre Hill, PA, to make cigars exclusively for jobbers.

1848 Samuel S. Watts begins cigarmaking in Terre Hill, PA exclusively for jobbers.

1848 George and Robert McMillan found G. & R. McMillan Co. , which becomes the oldest wholesale-retail firm in Detroit to continually operate under one name. Still run by the family, George III, in 1931.

1848 Cuba: SANCHO PANZA Cuban cigars originated by Emilio Ohmstedt . Arbole upright

1848 Cuba: EL REY del MUNDO founded by Emilio Ohmstedt and/or Antonio Allones . box

1848 T.P. and R. Goodbody start tobacco factory in Waterford, Ireland . Begin making cigars at later date.

1849 Principal ship-building ports of the US by tonnage: New York City, Boston, New Orleans, Philadelphia, New Bedford, Baltimore and everyone else.

1849 The New York Times reports more money is spent for cigars each day in NYC than is spent for bread.

1849 H. Sutliff becomes a tobacconist in San Francisco to take advantage of the gold rush traffic. In 1937 the H. Sutliff Pipe Shop was still in business at 578 Market Street.

1849 George Schlegel, one of the US’s more important cigar label printers, founded in NYC (1849-1957). Numerous examples

1849 H. Conrad Deines , lithographic Co., founded in Germany.

1849 Frederich Bourquin introduces use of zinc plates to replace litho stones. Adopted by the printing industry very slowly.

1849 John Wesley Cardwell partnered with [?] Baldwin’s machine shop , founding J.W. Cardwell Machine Co. in Richmond, VA , as manufacturer of tobacco processing machines. Factory burned down by the Yankees in Civil War. Company still around in 2007 though in foreign ownership out of the country.

1849 Boston imports 2,000 hogsheads, 8,300 bales and 27,000 boxes and kegs of tobacco. Boston exports 1,500 hogsheads, 3,700 bales and 9,800 boxes and kegs of tobacco the same year.

1849 Erie canal important to trade, shipping 1,700,000 pounds of Western domestic cigar tobacco East from Buffalo to Albany, NYC, and towns along the canal (Syracuse, Rochester, Oneida, etc).

1849 Virginia establishes the auction system of selling loose leaf tobacco as opposed to the inspected hogshead system set up in 1730. This had little impact on cigars as cigar tobacco had been sold loose, in bales, and in the fields for a half century and almost never used either the hogshead or Southern auction systems.

1850 US annual cigar consumption is 19 per person. Stats like this are misleading because the number is much higher when you factor out children, most women and all non-smokers. Number of cigars per smoker probably closer to 75, and if only cigar smokers are counted, the figure may be twice that or more.

1850 Cigar tobacco production begins in Wisconsin .

1850 Sanford Elmore plants first CT tobacco seed in Chemung County, NY. Within five years 30 acres grew more than 34,000 pounds. By the Civil War, a quarter million pounds were harvested. For the next 70 years, the area known as one of NY state’s prime planting areas.

1 850 Otto Eisenlohr established factory in Philadelphia . Long time maker of CINCO and HENRIETTA, brands which celebrated their centennial . letterhead, ad showing 1st factory

1850 Henry Traisor , ultimately one of Boston’s most important cigar makers, opens his first factory. Maker of PIPPENS. Boxes This is a contested date. Company souces give both 1850 and 1852 as founding date.

1850 Five Fendrich brothers open a tobacco factory in Baltimore using Kentucky leaf to make plug.

1850 Cuba: ROMEO Y JULIETA by Inocencio Alvarez and Manin Garcia (many conflicting dates are given by various authors, emphasizing the difficulty of research in Cuba where archives have been pillaged and sold on the open market: see 1873 and 1875) E arliest label, other boxes

1850 New Calixto Lopez factory built in Havana. Labels, ads

1850 U.S. Senator HENRY CLAY visits Cuba and has cigar named after him. Label, various boxes

1850 One half of total U.S. export is leaf tobacco for pipe smoking, snuff and chewing tobacco.

1850 The 1850 Brooklyn Census listed 408 cigar factories employing 2,950 men and women, rolling $35,000,000 worth of cigars a year. Manhattan listed three times as many factories. Philadelphia had more.

1850 Havana, Cuba, is the largest, most cosmopolitan, cultured, city in North and South America.

A traveler described the city’s smell as a not unpleasant (just distinctive) mix of garlic, cigar smoke and the guts of butchered animals, since Cubans ate copious amounts of garlic, smoked incessantly and tossed offal in the streets for scavengers.

1850 A German nobleman established a cigarette factory in St. Petersburg to manufacture “Russian type” cigarettes made of expensive Turkish leaf. They came complete with a cotton wad filter. This is the type of cigarette British troops brought home to England after the Crimean war. Although Cuban and other cigarettes were smoked throughout Europe and the Middle East asx early as the 1830s, cigarettes were close to unknown in the United States before the War.

I’d like to quit reading and go back <home>.

1851 Frederich Heppenheimer and ? Hartmann start one of nation’s most important cigar label printers. The firm underwent 5 name variations between 1851 and 1892 ultimately absorbed into American Litho. Numerous examples

1851 Cuba: Date claimed for Jose Gener’s first tobacco farm in the Vuelta Abajo. He establishes HOYO DE MONTERREY in 1865, named after the small fertile valley in which he farmed. Various boxes

1851 Cuba : LA ESCEPCION created by J ose Gener , Havana. Serpentine chest, other

1851 Cuba : Bock y Ca , Havana, puts bands on BOCK y Ca . cigars. Also reported as taking place in 1854 and 1857 Mara claims an astonishing and impossible (for Bock) 1831 A recent magazine writer puts date of Bock’s factory as 1864 and bands later. The joys of Cuban research. Various boxes

1851 The Boston Almanac for 1851 lists only 10 cigar factories in that city, but like other compilations they did not count tiny family operations which prior to 1920 made up the vast majority of factories.

1851 British cigar companies joined those of the U.S. and Cuba exhibiting at the Great Paris Exposition.

1852 H. Traiser cigar factory founded in Boston . Best known for PIPPENS & HARVARD . Brands made for 100+ years. Have 5 different PIPPINS , including foil, tin, 100/10, 2 50/13, other ephemera.

1852 Joseph Whitcomb & Co . established on 258 Main Street "near the depot" in Springfield Mass . by Joseph Whitcomb and later operated by [sons?] S.A. and H.L. Whitcomb as wholesale and retail dealers in foreign and domestic tobacco, snuff, plug tobacco, pipes and imported and Key West cigars. They also manufactured USA and WINTHROP cigars as well as “every description of” custom brands. 1875 billhead

1852 Augustus Pollack , stogie maker, begins business in West Virginia. Factory illus. Boxes

1852 S.A. Whitcomb and H.L. Whitcomb established cigar factory in Springfield, MA . Expands into full line tobacco product wholesaler. Becomes Joseph Whitcomb & Co (in business in 1905)

1852 LORD BYRON cigars began being made in Cuba, the first brand known to have been packed and shipped overseas in cardboard drums holding 50 cigars. The top and bottom of the boxes were sewn together with waxed thread. Cardboard drum, 50s box and modern porcelain jar.

1852 Christian Peper Tobacco Company , long time maker of pipe tobacco blends including FIFTH AVENUE MIXTURE , established in St. Louis. Still around in 1946.

1852 H.H. Mehlhop establishes cigar factory and distributorship in Dubuque, Iowa. Lasts 75± years.

1852 EL PRINCIPE DE GALES brand created by Ybor in Havana. brand’s early labels are on exhibit. Another Cuban brand THE PRINCE OF WALES was also made at this same time. Who copied whom? A label from the latter can be seen < here >. Have labels, boxes, ads, statue-lighter

1852 Luis Susini registers the cigarette brand LA HONRADEZ in Havana. The story of this brand and it’s huge influence on packaging and marketing history is told in the Cuban Gallery of the Museum.

1853 Mayrisch Bros & Co ., cigar makers and importers, at the corner of Battery and Clay in San Francisco, claim to be the first cigar factory on the West Coast. Unsubstantiated and unlikely. letterhead

1853 Ohio cigar tobacco production 1,600,000 pounds. By the Civil War, eight years later, production was ten times that.

1853 L.B. Hass & Co. founded in Hartford , CT , as a packer of all types of Connecticut leaf tobacco. Still in business 100 years later.

1853 The May-Flower Tobacco Works of John J. Bagley is opened.

1853 A. Hoen & Co . Litho formed in Baltimore from Weber Litho. Hoen became the largest printer of smoking and chewing tobacco crate and caddy labels in the world. Numerous Caddy labels

1853 Moser Cigar and Paper Box Co . founded in St. Louis . illus letter

1853 Techno-geek Louis Susini imports German cigarette machine into Cuba. Suisini soon exports one of world’s most expensive and desirable cigarettes (tho most are handmade). Widely counterfeited. Originator of collectible labels . Visit his factory < here >. See his labels < here >..

1853 British medical journal LANCET tests tobacco, snuff, cigars and cheroots for adulteration. Cigars were purchased from 58 cigar stores. All but three samples were pure. One had hay for filler, another was brown paper wrapper and hay filler. The third had “sweepings, probably of the warehouse. It contained dust, dirt, fragments of mortar, pieces of apple-paring, and much broken and refuse tobacco.” Twelve cheroot samples were tested for opium, a common belief, and found clean.

1853 (published 1859) Lieutenant John Page wrote of universal cigar smoking in Paraguay , describing cigars being offered in every household, rich or poor. He said all men, women and children including refined young girls smoked. Paraguayan tobacco wouldn’t hurt children they claimed.

1853-1856 Fifty-five thousand French and British troops involved in the Crimean war learned to smoke cigarettes made from local tobacco from their Turkish allies. When they return home, popularity of Turkish “Oriental” tobacco booms.

1854 Ruhe Bros. Co . founded to make cigars in Allentown, PA . card , box MR. THOMAS

1854 Nicholas Kuhnen goes into the cigar making business in Davenport Iowa , creator of PAPPOOSE , a brand that lasted a century. Have various styles of box over the years

1854 John Berger goes into the tobacco packing business in Ohio. By 1930 his son is headquartered in Cincinnati at 315 Main St. and operating warehouses in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Connecticut and Cuba.

1854 Roger Fenton , the first official war photographer, becomes the first known to have taken a picture of a man lighting a cigarette. Crimea 1854 or 55. The cigarette was made of “Oriental” (Turkish) tobacco and rolled in newspaper.

1855 Francis Fendrich & Brothers opens its doors as a retail and wholesale firm in Evansville, Indiana . Its first cigar brand, THE FIVE BROTHERS, was made for them in Columbia, Pennsylvania. Youngest brother Herrmann Fendrich takes over the company in late 1870s when 3 older brothers retire. Firm renamed Herrmann Fendrich, successor to Fendrich Brothers.

1855 Dohan & Taitt , importers of Havana and packers of domestic leaf open in Philadelphia . J.T. and W.H. Dohan were on the letterhead for 1905, at 107 Arch St..

1855 John Morris plants first tobacco crop in Bucks County , PA , on Duck Island . First crops were distinctive and such good quality it brought profit of $500 an acre encouraged plantings in Perkasie, Morrisville, Tullytown, Falsington and throughout Richland township. Subsequent plantings brought 15¢ to 35¢ per pound. Later dropped as low as 4¢. Tobacco planting has always been risky. DUCK ISLAND box

1855 John Fendrich established cigar factory in Columbia , PA . By 1897, Son William was in charge and ran what was then called the Gem Cigar Factory , as well as a leaf dealership. Box, ads, fact. illus.

1855 A.A. Guile opens cigar factory at 9 Seneca St., Geneva , NY .

1855 Austin, Nichols & Company founded as a wholesale grocer specializing in tea, coffee and booze (including WILD TURKEY bourbon, which it manufactured). Created and distributed many brands of cigars. Changed name to Pernod Ricard USA in 2001.

1855 Alex Fries & Bro, “the leading manufacturers” of non-evaporating flavors and sweeteners for cigars, cigarettes, smoking tobacco and chewing tobacco is founded in Cincinnati. Offices in New York. Ads.

1855 Jacob Krohn is making cigars in Ohio. DUTY PAID box

1855 Cigar tobacco production begins in Chemung County , NY , called the “Big Flats.”

1855 John Lundstrum, a Swede, created a revolution for smokers by inventing the safety match. The British company, Bryant and May immediately purchased the rights and became one of the world’s largest purveyors of matches . Have various Bryant and May boxes and book on the Company.

1850's More than 1,000 cigar factories are in operation in Cuba, the most that will exist in any decade.

Some Cuban cigars made for the export market are banded. No EXACT information by whom when.

1856 Captain Abishai Slade of Caswell County, NC, produces the first bright yellow tobacco, ultimately revolutionizing the smoking tobacco and cigarette industries.

1856 Famous pipe tobacco manufacturer John Middleton founded.

1856 A.W. Mentzer & Sons establishes a cigar factory in Ephrata, PA to make LA OLCA, GENERAL ROLLER, LA PALANTINA, and LOG CABIN.

1856 Famous Vicente Ybor begins making EL PRINCIPE DE GALES in Havana.

PRINCE OF WALES cigars were from another factory. Ybor’s signature is seen on A LO FIGARO , an apparant knock-off of the world known FIGARO . Bor Copying anoth company”s succesful name & label was

1857 US Government enacts tariff aimed at imported (mostly Cuban) tobacco and cigars. Before the tariff goes into effect more Cuban cigars are imported than in any year before or since. This Act had serious consequences for the Cuban cigar industry and led to Cuban manufacturers moving to Key West, New Orleans and New York.

1857 A never-again-equalled 360,000,000 Cuban cigars were shipped to the U.S. To put the 360 million in “cigar perspective” the U.S. also imported an equal number of cigars from the Netherlands and German principalities, and rolled four times that many cigars domestically. A century later, in a population many times greater, the U.S. imported 1/9 that many Cuban cigars, a mere 40,000,000.

1857 Iwan Ries opens his still-in-business tobacconist shop in Chicago.

1857 S. Hernsheim & Bro founded LA BELLE CREOLE cigar factory in New Orleans parade trade card, booklet, illus of factory, LA BELLE CREOLE

1857 M. Stachelberg & Co. , maker of clear Havanas, established.

1857 Hart & Murphy , founded St. Paul, Minnesota, makers of JUDGE HARLAN among others.

1857 D. Bing , maker of BINGATO clear Havana cigars is established.

1857 John C. Partridge & Co. founded in Chicago, one of the largest and oldest distributors in Chicago. Located at 87 Randolph St., but moved many times as it expanded.

1857 E. Hoffman Co . established in Chicago as tobacco wholesaler--retailer.

1857 Charles Lawrence & Co established in Boston as commission merchants, importers and wholesale dealers in fruit and cigars Two brands listed on their 1900 letterhead : GLENWOOD 10¢ and LAWRENCE’S 103 at 5¢.

1857 Only 5 experienced carvers of ship figureheads were still working in New York City. After the war, demand for cigar store Indians and circus show figures would rise substantially and the trade would prosper for nearly half a century.

1857 Modern toilet paper invented replaces FARMER’S ALMANAC in homes and outhouses.

1857 Cigarette factory established by Robert Peacock Gloag in Walworth, London . Sold cigarettes five-for-a-penny. The following year Nicolas Contoupoulis opened the second cigarette factory. in 1861, another Greek, Theodoriti opened the third, followed by Marcovitch in 1863. The latter is the only one whose brands were still sold a century later.

1858 The Mueller & Son Company , box manufacturer, established in Milwaukee , Wisconsin.

1858 Gumpert Bros , start cigar retail operation in Philadelphia . picture and envelope drawings.

1858 H. Seamon , stogie makers, founded in Wheeling WV. Cdb drum

1858 Robert Capadura Brown , tobacco distributor, created CAPADURA brand cigars, possibly this year, tho brand not patented until 1876. Have box

1858 H. Jacobs founded a cigar factory in Canada, later famous as makers of STONEWALL JACKSON cigars. trade ad and box

1858 Gieske & Niemann , dealers, packers and exporters of Maryland and other leaf tobacco, established in Baltimore . Still in business in 1946.

1858 Custom bands were put on cigars given at NYC banquet honoring men who laid Atlantic cable. Those bands now have mythic status among collectors. Valuable if you could find one. I’d like the box.

1858 First city-wide cigar maker’s trade union established in St. Louis.

1858 LA CAROLINA established in Cuba, possibly at Animas 100 & 102, their 1898 location. box 1875

1858 Soldiers returning to England fro m the Crimean war introduce cigarettes made with Turkish strains of small leaf tobacco. This tobacco was especially adopted in Russia, where cardboard mouthpieces and cotton filters were soon added.

1858 Robert Peacock Gloag became the “father of the British cigarette industry,” founding what his ads called “the oldest and the original” Turkish tobacco and cigarette factories in England. His ads promoted his “Russian-made Latakia dust cigarettes wrapped in yellow tissue paper.”

1859 US Government offers Spain $30,000,000 for Cuba . Turned down. Political cartoon

Pounds of cigar leaf produced:

1859 Pennsylvania’s cigar leaf production will hold relatively steady for next 20 years.

1859± Jose Villavicencio operated a cigar factory at 52 Figura (Havana). He used the trademarks LA FOR DE MI VEGA, MERCEDES and MONTE CRISTO.

1859 102,000,000 Cuban cigars imported into the U.S. (about 40% of Cuban production). Approximately 800 Cuban export brands existed (a small fraction of the number of cigar brands produced in the U.S.).

1859 Cuba exported almost 9,000,000 packages of cigarettes, containing an average 50 smokes each. Very few went to the U.S., those almost exclusively to Cuban immigrants in Key West and New Orleans. Cuban cigarettes were like no other they became a worldwide phenomenon except in the U.S. European counterfeiting of Cuban brands was on the rise.

1860 US annual cigar consumption rises to 26 per person.

1860 Around 1,500 cigar factories in US employ 8,000 people. Another source says 2,000 factories and 25.000 people. Women made up 9% of the workforce. Children weren’t counted. They worked, they just weren’t always well counted. Thirty years later, all numbers except the last, would have grown by 10X or more.

1860 Machinery for making cigars advertised in popular art magazine. Have ad

1860's British cigar makers widely adopt the cigar mould. Some reports say it was invented there.

1860's Difficulty in identifying a cigar once out of the box, British cigar makers began pasting various shapes and colors of stickers called 'tickets' on cigars. Customer complaints about damaged wrapper led to the adoption of paper 'rings' called bands today.

1860 Francis Asbury starts NYC business making fancy glass cigar boxes and signs. Have ad

1860 As much cigar leaf grown in Ohio (almost 5 million pounds) as in Pennsylvania and New England.

1860 Cincinnati was 4th leading cigar producing city, behind Philadelphia, New York and Baltimore.

1860 In Chicago , still the wild west, more than 224 cigar factories are in operation.

1860 John G. Root establishes factory in Reamstown, PA . Makes JOHN BROWN cigars with the slogan “As his soul goes marching on.”

1860? H. & J. Breitwieser (Henry & John) founded as cigarmakers in Buffalo . envelope, boxes

1860 Lewis Osterweis & Sons founded in New Haven, CT . Lasts until 1954.

1860 Theobald & Oppenheimer founded in Philadelphia .

1860 Rohde & Co . established as cigar maker at 55 West Canal, Cincinnati . Still operating in 1930 at 114 East 2nd. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE

1860 Gromanes & Ullrich established in Chicago as importers of Havana cigars and tobacco and dealers in clear Havanas and domestic cigars.

1860 Schmidt & Storm (forerunner of Straiton & Storm 1863) founded in NYC . Box for their brand

1860 Pedro Murias creates LA MERIDIANA in Havana.

1860 Bottomly & Co . begin cigar manufacture in Halifax, England .

1860 Wages for carpenters and masons was 65¢ a day, sunrise to sunset.

1860 The TOBACCO TRADE BENEVOLENT ASSOCIATION established in London, England, “for the relief of aged and necessitous members of the trade, their widows and orphans.”

1860 The U.S. imports 300,000,000 cigars from the city of Bremen . Bremen imported 42,000 pounds of low grade tobacco from the U.S.

1861-1865 The US Civil War (aka: the war between the states) had a major impact on many aspects of American life and business especially the new taxes and all the men and rules it took to enforce the.

1861 David Swisher receives a small Newark Ohio cigar factory as part of debt payment. The beginning of a huge cigar business, still in operation today in Florida. Numerous examples of boxes, etc.

1861 Weideman Co . starts in the cigar distribution business in Detroit .

1861 Only 38 of the once more than 200 cigarette factories remained in Havana, shut down because of advertising and wrapper-premiums given away by major makers Susini, Figaro, and others. 1350 workers were employed in cigarette factories and another 950 rolled them on a piece-rate basis in prison, jail, and army barracks. More than 300,000 packs of Cuban cigarettes were produced daily.

1861 William K. Gresh opens his first cigar factory in Centre Point, PA.

1861 Banner Tobacco Co., maker of BANNER chewing tobacco, starts production in Detroit.

1861 Charles H. Blake becomes a wholesale jobber offering "small wares, fancy goods, stationery & Cigars" in Centre Harbor, NH.

1861 Joseph Pattreiouex begins wholesale mixing of tobacco blends in Manchester, England .

1861 A. Jimenez & Sons established on Fenchurch Street in London, England , as importers of Cuban cigars, Mexican cigars, European cigars, and cigarettes from around the world. Sole importers of LA COSMOPOLITANA from Havana.

1862 US Government imposes 5 different excise taxes on cigars based on their value. Cigars valued between $5 and $10 per 1,000 were taxed $2. Cigars valued at more than $20 per 1,000 paid $3.50 per 1,000. Laws were contradictory and confusing. Meets with widespread, near universal, evasion. For more information visit the Cigar Tax Wars exhibit.

1862 R.W. Tansill, maker of TANSILL’S PUNCH , goes into business in Chicago. By 1883 has offices in New York, Chicago, San Francisco and Key West. Full box, letterhead, more

1862 J.F. McMahon goes into business as wholesaler of cigars, cigarettes, tobacco and smokers’ articles, at 212 Main Street, Peoria, Illinois . Still in Business in 1932. billhead

1862 C.L. Hulett began business in Troy, NY , as a wholesaler of cigars, manufactured tobacco and leaf. Still in operation in 1911.

1862 W.S. Mathews & Sons established in Paducah, KY, and manufacturers and exporters of snuff, twist, and plug smoking and chewing tobacco. Still around in 1946.

1862 F.A. Appel awarded a medal at the Great Exhibition for varnished metal plates decorated by means of a transfer printing process.

1862 J.L. Van Gelder begins making cigars at St. Mary Axe, London, England.

1862 Josef Huppmann establishes cigarette factory in Dresden, employing one cutter and six female rollers.


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