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A timeline of events in 1974 - History

A timeline of events in 1974 - History


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World History 1974ָ

Willy Brandt Resigns, Military Government of Greece Resigns, Coup in Portugal, Revolt in Cyprus, Turkey Invades, Helinski Accords, Suez Canal, King Faisel Assassinated, India Explodes Nuclear Device, Guinea- Bissau Granted Independent, South Africa forced to turn over Prtectorate of Namibia, Civil War In Lebanon, Emperor Haile Selassie Deposed, Disengagement Agreement, Nixon Resigns,Soyuz- Apollo Mission,

1974 Willy Brandt of West Germany Forced to Resign Willy Brandt resigned, after one of his top aides, Gunter Guillaume, was arrested on charges of spying for East Germany.
1974 Military Government of Greece Resigns The military junta in Greece resigned, turning control of the government over to Constantine Karamanlis. Martial law was lifted, and elections were held.
1974 Military Coup in Portugal A leftist military coup took place in Portugal. It unseated the right-wing dictatorship that held power for 40 years. The military immediately reversed the Portuguse policy of holding its African colonies, and began to grant the colonies independence quickly. In addition, the Portugese military leaders began the transition to civil democratic rule.
1974 Revolt in Cyprus, Turkey Invades Greek officers of the National Guard led a revolt that ousted Cypriot leader Archbishop Makarios III. Turkish troops invaded the island and captured over half of it. A cease-fire was arranged, and Makarios returned. Cyprus, however, was virtually partitioned into Greek and Turkish territories.
1974 India Explodes Nuclear Device On May 18, the Indians detonated a nuclear bomb in an underground explosion. The bomb was small-- approximately 15 megatons. India thus became the sixth member of the "nuclear club."
1974 Guinea- Bissau Granted Independence by Portugal After a military revolt in Portugal that brought a Left-leaning government to power, the Portuguese government agreed to grant independence to Portuguese Guinea. The new country was renamed Guinea-Bissau, and its first President was Luis de Almeida Cabral.
1974 UN orders South Africa to turn over Prtectorate of Namibia The U.N. Security Council voted to give South Africa until May 30, 1975 to begin transferring power in Namibia to the Namibians. Ten days before the deadline, South African Premier Balthazar Vorster rejected the U.N. demand, saying that South Africa would not negotiate the transfer of power with the South West African People's Organization (the major Black nationalist group).
1974 Emperor Haile Selassie Deposed in Ethiopia The 44-year reign of Haile Selassie came to an end when he was deposed by the army. Selassie had begun his reign as an absolute monarch. However, during the last decades of his rule, he was a constitutional monarch whose powers were limited by a constitution and a legislature. The new government suspended the constitution and the legislature, and executed 60 former government officials. The new head of government was Aman Andom, but he was soon replaced by Teferi Benti who executed Andom.
1974 Disengagement Agreement Between Israel, Egypt and Syria In January, Israel agreed to a disengagement agreement under which its forces would withdraw from the west bank of the Suez Canal, as well as from an area on the east side of the Canal. In May, Israel and Syria also agreed to a disengagement plan. Under its terms, Israel withdrew from territory seized during the 1973 war as well as from the town of Kuneitra, seized in 1967.
1974 President Nixon Resigns On August 8, 1974, President Nixon became the first President in US history to resign. Nixon resigned as the House of Representatives was poised to vote on the articles of impeachment against him.
1974 Soyuz- Apollo Mission The meeting of the American Apollo and the Soviet Soyuz on July 19, 1975, marked the first cooperative space mission between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Nebraska History Timeline

The very first were Indians who came here more than 10,000 years ago. They were nomadic hunters who were looking for an area where big game animals were plentiful. Over the centuries there have been other Indian immigrants, such as the Oto tribe which came here about 300 years ago. Nebraska, which was admitted to the union as the 37th state on March 1, 1867, two years after the end of the American Civil War, contains some of the nation's best ranchland and farmland.

16th Century Nebraska History Timeline

1541 - Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado led an expedition across the US Southwest into Kansas.He claimed the entire territory for Spain

17th Century Nebraska History Timeline

1682 - French explorer Rene Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle, traveled down the Mississippi River to its mouth. He claimed all the land drained by the Mississippi, as well as its tributaries, for France.

18th Century Nebraska History Timeline

1714 - Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont is the first recorded European in Nebraska.

1720 - Pedro de Villasur was sent to out from Santa Fe on June 16, 1720 to scout enemy positions on the plains. His party included forty-five white soldiers, sixty Pueblo Indians, a priest and an interpreter. He made several attempts to trade with the Pawnees but was openly rebuffed. Pedro de Villasur paused to regroup and plan his next move. As Pedro de Villasur and his group camped near present day Columbus, Nebraska, they were attacked by the Pawnees. Most of the Pueblos had sensed danger and left before the battle began. Pedro de Villasur was killed before he could reach his weapons and only thirteen Spaniards made it back to Santa Fe.

1739 - While looking for a path to Santa Fe, Pierre and Paul Mallet traveled north along the Missouri river to the mouth of the Niobrara. Here they concluded they were traveling in the wrong direction. They traveled south parallel to the Missouri and crossed the Platte and Republican rivers on their way. Eventually, they found their way to Sante Fe.

1763 - Treaty of Paris, All land west of the Mississippi River became Spanish.

1789 - Juan Munier met the Ponca Indians living near the mouth of the Niobrara river. He was given exclusive trading rights with the Ponca's by the Spanish.

1793 - Jacques D'Eglise began trading with the Mandan Indians and was given exclusive trading rights by the Spanish government for his exploration efforts.

19th Century Nebraska History Timeline

1800 - Treaty of San Ildefonso. The Spanish found it costly to explore this new country and could not see the rewards being worth the investment. They returned the Louisiana to France in 1800.

1803 - The US acquires Nebraska in the Louisiana Purchase

1804 - Lewis and Clark reach the eastern edge of Nebraska

1806 - Explorer Zebulon Pike visits southern Nebraska

1812 - Manuel Lisa builds Fort Lisa on the Missouri River near Omaha.

1819 - US Army established Nebraska's first military post, Fort Atkinson

1820 - Major Stephen H. Long made an expedition to the rocky mountains and back. His opinion of the plains was not favorable. This opinion, shared by many, could explain the reluctance of settlers to make the prairie their home. The plains most certainly offered new challenges to the pioneer.

1823 - Bellevue becomes the first permanent settlement in Nebraska.

  • The Indian Removal Act allows the US government to relocate Native Americans west of the Mississippi River.
  • The Oregon Trail. Jedediah Smith, David Jackson, and William Sublette set out from St. Louis. They followed a route up the Missouri river to the Platte river. Instead of following the Missouri north as Lewis and Clark did, they went west on the Platte river. These were the first travelers on what was to become the Oregon Trail. By the 1840s the southern pass of the trail went west from Independence MO to Kansas City, northwest to Ft. Kearney (Nebraska) and then turned west again to Fort Vancouver (Present Vancouver, Washington).
  • Traders took the first wagons to the Rocky Mountains

1832 - Steamboat Yellowstone began the first annual fur-trading voyages up the Missouri River

1833 - Rev. Moses Merrill and his wife, Eliza Wilcox Merrill, were the first resident missionaries to the Nebraska Indians. They arrived in Bellevue in 1833

1834 - The Trade and Intercourse Act prohibits whites from trespassing on Native American lands west of the Mississippi River.

1842-44 - The word "Nebraska" first began to appear in publications in 1842 when John Fremont explores the Platte Valley and names Nebraska

1844 - The first bill to organize the new Nebraska Territory, introduced in Congress on Dec. 17, 1844, by Illinois Sen. Stephen Douglas, failed to pass.

1848 - Fort Kearny is established along the Oregon Trail

1854 - Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed by the US Congress on May 30, 1854. It allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders. The Act served to repeal the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which prohibited slavery north of latitude 36°30´.

  • The territory's population grew from 2,732 in November 1854 to 28,841
  • Estimated 82 black people in the state. By 1900 that number had risen to 6,269.

April 3, 1860 - Oct. 24, 1861 - Pony Express riders also followed the Platte River valley, carrying mail to the west coast.

1862 - The Homestead Act and the Pacific Railroad Act are passed.

  • Nebraska joined the Union as the 37th state on March 1, 1867.
  • The people elected David Butler as the first governor
  • Lincoln became the state capital on July 29.

1868 - Lincoln replaces Omaha as the state capital.

  • Oglala Sioux leader Red Cloud and other Sioux sign the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie.
  • The Union Pacific Railroad is completed terminus is at Omaha.

1870 - Robert Anderson was the first black person to homestead in Box Butte County.

1875 - A new state constitution is adopted.

1877 - Oglala Sioux leader Crazy Horse surrenders in Nebraska.

1892 - The Populist or People's Party holds its first national convention in Omaha.

1895 - Silas Robbins was the first black person to be admitted to the Nebraska State Bar Association

1896 - William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska is nominated as the presidential candidate by both the Democratic and Populist parties.

20th Century Nebraska History Timeline

1902 - Reclamation Act of 1902, which earmarked federal aid for irrigation projects.

1933 - Gov. Charles Bryan imposed a moratorium on farm foreclosures.

1937 - The unicameral state legislature holds its first session.

1939 - Petroleum discovered in southeastern Nebraska

1944 - Congress passed the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Project, which authorized the creation of flood control dams, reservoirs and hydroelectric plants in states drained by the Missouri River, including Nebraska.

1948 - Strategic Air Command establishes headquarters near Omaha

1963 Race riot in Omaha led to the creation of the Omaha Human Rights Commission

1968&1969 - Race riots required intervention by the military and the National Guard.

1974 - Gerald Ford of Omaha becomes President of the United States

1982 - Initiative 300 prohibits individual farmers from selling their land to corporations.

1987 - Legislature adopted two measures that authorized tax incentives for businesses intending to create new jobs in Nebraska.

21st Century Nebraska History Timeline

2000 - Train derailment in Scottsbluff spilled 80,000 gallons of chemical benzene, evacuations ordered

  • Pipe bombs found in six residential mailboxes, domestic terrorism suspected
  • drought devastated crops, caused invasion of grasshopper, losses more than $1 billion

2005 - Legislature voted to allow convicted felons to vote after completion of sentence and two-year waiting period

2006 - Cuba bought $30 million in food from Nebraska

2007 - Gunman killed eight, injured five during shooting at Omaha mall

2009 - Legislature voted to change capital punishment from electrocution to lethal injection
2011 -

  • Flooding of Fort Calhoun nuclear power plant by Missouri River raised fears that power plants could be vulnerable to weather extremes
  • Nebraska legislautre voted to reroute controversial TransCanada pipeline to avoid Sandhills and Ogallala aquifer

2012 - Four tornadoes struck around North Platte, injured four, damaged homes, farm buildings, derailed 31 railroad cars


IBM 3850 mass storage system

The IBM 3850 mass storage system is introduced. The largest 3850 storage system held 4,720 cartridges, stored 236 GB, and was 20 feet long. IBM claimed online magnetic disk storage was ten times more costly than the 3850. Released as an alternative to a manual tape reel library, the system used 4-inch long cylinders of magnetic tape that were retrieved and replaced by a robotic arm. Those cylinders were stored in hexagonal, “honeycomb” bins to reduce space.

IBM 3174 Systems Network Architecture (SNA) controller


Timeline: 1975

Jan 9 In Florence, Italy, police raid an abortion clinic, creating controversy.

Jan 15 In Greece, former dictator, George Papdopoulos, is charged with high treason and insurrection.

Feb 11 In Britain, Margaret Thatcher is chosen leader of the Conservative Party, the first woman to lead a British political party. She is known as an articulate member of the House of Commons.

Feb 18 Jane Fonda files $2.8 million damage suit against the US government, charging violation of her civil rights. The Justice Department confirms that the CIA intercepted her overseas mail.

Feb 18 Italy's highest court rules that abortion is legal if a pregnancy threatens the mother's physical or psychological health.

Feb 21 The Vatican declares the ruling on abortion questionable and of extreme gravity and states that abortion is morally unconscionable even if it is permitted by civil law.

Feb 25 The West German Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe declares as unconstitutional a law allowing abortions on request during the first three months of pregnancy.

Mar 6 The Shah of Iran and Baathist Iraq agree on a border between the two countries and declare a bond of "friendship and neighborliness.".

Mar 15 Aristotle Onassis dies. The former Jacqueline Kennedy is a widow again.

Mar 18 In Iraq, the peace and friendship between Iran and Iraq ends a year-old Kurd rebellion led by Mullah Mustafa Barzani. The Kurds had been supported by the Shah of Iran and by the CIA, the latter having been disturbed by Iraq's association with the Soviet Union.

Mar 26 During a royal audience, the young Saudi prince, Faisal ibu Masaed, fires three bullets at his uncle the king, Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz, fatally wounding him.

Mar 30 North Vietnam's Army is the fifth largest army in the world. It has overrun the city of Hue. Saigon's military is in full retreat. The city of Da Nang is overrun. Around 100,000 South Vietnamese soldiers surrender after being abandoned by their commanding officers.

Apr 4 The first group of boat people from South Vietnam begin arriving in Malaysia.

Apr 5 Chiang Kai-shek's dream of taking back the mainland has come to an end with his death. Taiwan is shifting its focus from that project to advancing its economy.

Apr 12 In Cambodia, the Khmer Rouge are closing in on the capital, Phnom Penh. The US evacuates its embassy personnel. Among the evacuees are some of Cambodia's most senior government ministers, including its acting president, Saukham Khoy.

Apr 17 In Paris, representatives of Cambodia's Khmer Rouge announce that the new Khmer Rouge government will follow a policy of neutrality and nonalignment. In Phnom Penh, many are joyous, believing that five years of civil war has ended. Khmer Rouge troops march into the city, disciplined, without a smile of friendship toward the celebrants in the streets.

Apr 18 China conveys its "warmest congratulations and highest esteem" to Prince Norodom Sihanouk and the new Cambodian leaders on their victory.

Apr 20 A radio station in Phnom Penh has been broadcasting only revolutionary music and slogans. The Khmer Rouge tells the people of Phnom Penh that the Americans are going to bomb the city. They begin to evacuate all residents.

Apr 21 Members of the Symbonese Liberation Army rob a bank in suburban Sacramento, California. One member, Emily Harris, kills a mother of four with a 12-gauge shotgun. Patricia Hearst drives the getaway car.

Apr 21 Nguyen Van Thieu resigns as President of South Vietnam. In an address he accuses the United States of having broken its promises. He is succeeded by Vice President Tran Van Huong.

Apr 23 President Ford announces that the Vietnam War is "finished as far as America is concerned." He says that "the fate of responsible men and women everywhere, in the final decision, is in their own hands, not ours."

Apr 25 A few members of Germany's Red Army Faction take over the German embassy in Stockholm, and after denied their demand for the release of twenty-six of their comrades they explode a bomb that kills two German diplomats.

Apr 26 From the French Embassy in Phnom Pehn, diplomats express concern about shortages of food, water and medical supplies. The embassy is housing diplomats and other foreigners, including five American newsmen.

Apr 27 Saigon is encircled by North Vietnamese troops. Looting erupts.

Apr 29 US helicopters lift people to three US aircraft carriers. South Vietnamese pilots land their helicopters, which are pushed over the side to make room for more arrivals.

Apr 29 US and Greek officials announce the end of the home-port arrangement for the US Sixth Fleet and the closing of the US air base at Athens airport.

Apr 30 The North Vietnamese and Viet Cong occupy the presidential palace in Saigon.

May 5 The US State Department announces its belief that the Khmer Rouge has forcibly evacuated virtually the entire population from Phnom Penh.

May 12 The Khmer Rouge, aboard three gunboats, takes possession of a US cargo ship, the US Mayaguez, in a shipping lane off the coast of Cambodia.

May 14 US President Gerald Ford sends a company of Marines to rescue the Mayaguez and its crew. The ship's 40 crew members are rescued and an equal number of US servicemen are killed in the operation. Three Marines are taken prisoner and will not survive their captivity. The Khmer Rouge have gained nothing.

May 16 In Sikkim, people have rebelled against their monarchy. India annexes Sikkim, which becomes India's second smallest state.

Jun 2 In Maine, James A. Healy becomes the first black Roman Catholic bishop.

Jun 5 The Suez Canal, closed during Egypt's 1967 war with Israel, is reopened.

Jun 18 In a Riyadh shopping center, Prince Faisal ibu Masaed Faisal Ibn Mussed is beheaded for having killed his uncle, King Faisal.

Jun 25 In Eastern Africa, Mozambique becomes independent after five centuries of Portuguese rule. Around 600,000 Portuguese farmers have abandoned their farms, devastating Mozambique's agriculture.

Jul 1 Thailand and China establish diplomatic relations.

Jul 5 Arthur Ashe defeats Jimmy Conners, becoming the first black to win a Wimbledon singles title.

Jul 5 Portugal grants independence to the Cape Verde Islands, off the coast of West Africa.

Aug 1 In Helsinki, Finland, representatives of 35 countries sign the Helsinki Accords. They include the Soviet Union, the United States, Turkey and Europe's various states. The Accords declare respect for the rights inherent in sovereignty, the inviolability of frontiers, non-intervention in internal affairs, self-determination, and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief. The Soviet Union is happy with the Accords, believing it offers them more security.

Aug 4 In Malaysia, the Japanese Red Army raids a building that houses the US, Swedish, Japanese and Canadian embassies. They take 50 hostages and demand release of comrades in prison in Japan.

Aug 8 The Japanese government sends the Red Army their seven comrades, and the Red Army releases its hostages. Japan Airlines flies the Red Army members to Libya where the army members surrender peacefully to Libyan authorities.

Aug 15 In Bangladesh, a pre-dawn military coup by mid-ranking army officers murders the country's founding leader, Sheik Mujibar Rahman, and his family.

Aug 16 In Bangladesh, coup officers back a political figurehead, Khondakar Mushtaque Ahmed. He announces that parliamentary democracy will be restored by February 1977, and he lifts what had been the ban on political parties.

Aug 18 A Japan Air Lines spokesman expresses his view that the airline will refuse future requests to fly terrorists to countries that might offer them political asylum.

Aug 23 In Laos, a coalition government created by Communists takes power peacefully following days of planning and negotiations. The king of Laos, Savang Vatthana, is reduced to a figurehead.

Aug 24 In what has been an open trial, Col. George Papadopoulos and 19 others who took power in 1967 are found guilty of high treason and insurrection. Papadopoulos and two others are sentenced to death by firing squad.

Aug 25 Greece's government spares the lives of Papadopoulos and the two others sentenced to death, leaving the three with life sentences.

Aug 26 In Venice, Italy, preventive measures, long in progress, stop the city from sinking into the sea.

Aug 27 Haile Selassie, the last emperor of Ethiopia, out of power for almost one year and still worshipped as a savior and as God Incarnate by Rastafarians, dies at the age 83.

Sep 5 In Sacramento, California, Lynette "Squeeky" Fromme, a mystic and follower of Charles Manson, plans to speak to President Ford about the plight of California's redwood trees. President Ford is visiting Sacramento. Fromme points a pistol at the president and pulls the trigger but there is no round in the chamber. She is arrested.

Sep 8 Boston's public schools begin a court-ordered citywide busing program. The National Guard has been called out to prevent violence.

Sep 18 In an apartment in San Francisco with other Symbionese Liberation Army members, Patty Hearst is arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Sep 22 In San Francisco, Sara Jane Moore, an FBI informer and self-proclaimed revolutionary fires a shot at President Ford. She had tried to reach by telephone those protecting the President. She believes that the government is making war against the left. She is to say that she did not want to kill anybody but "there comes a point when the only way you can make a statement is to pick up a gun."

Oct 9 Soviet scientist Andrei Sakharov, civil rights advocate and creator of the first hydrogen bomb, is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The Soviet Union will not allow him to travel to Norway to receive the prize.

Oct 10 Israel and Egypt sign the Sinai Accord. Borders between the two countries are re-established and shipping through the Suez Canal is opened to Israel.

Oct 15 Iceland, committed to its fishing industry, moves its international boundary from 50 miles offshore to 200 miles.

Oct 30 The dictator Franco is incapacitated. Prince Juan Carlos assumes power in Spain.

Nov 3 In Bangladesh, military officers who resent the military coup of August 15 take power.

Nov 7 Fear that the new regime will renew ties with India, another coup takes place in Bangladesh. President Khondakar Mushtaque Ahmed returns as a figurehead president. Ziaur Rahman is the power behind the president. He cancels the elections for 1977.

Nov 11 Angola acquires independence from Portugal. Fidel Castro orders Cuban troops to Angola to support the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), which declares itself Angola's legitimate government.

Nov 18 Apparently having given up on revolution and seven years of exile, Eldridge Cleaver flies from Paris to New York, willing to face legal charges against him.

Nov 20 Spain's dictator, Francisco Franco, dies at the age of 83.

Nov 22 Juan Carlos is proclaimed king of Spain.

Nov 26 A federal jury in Sacramento finds Lynette Fromme guilty of trying to assassinate President Ford.

Nov 26 Harvard professor Edward O. Wilson has created a new field of study, expressed in his book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. He is being attacked from the political left and answers a hostile article in the New York Review of Books in this week's issue of that journal.

Nov 28 In Southeast Asia, East Timor proclaims independence from Portuguese rule.

Dec 3 In Laos, King Savang Vatthana is forced to abdicate. The People's Democratic Republic is proclaimed. The new republic is aligned with Vietnam and gives Vietnam the right to station troops within its borders and to appoint personnel to assist in overseeing the country.

Dec 6 Lebanon's army has disintegrated as soldiers have deserted to ethnic militias. On this day, to be known as Black Saturday, an estimated 200 to 600 people, mostly civilians, are killed in sectarian violence. A civil war has begun that will last to 1990.

Dec 8 Indonesia claims rule over East Timor and invades.

Dec21 In Austria the Saudi oil minister, Sheik Ahmed Zaki Yamani, and other oil ministers at the OPEC gathering are abducted by four "pro-Palestinian" terrorists. They kill three and take 11 oil ministers and about 80 others hostage.

Dec 23 The terrorists have been flown to Algiers with forty hostages and $1 billion in ransom money, a stop on a journey that will extend into 1976, to Baghdad and then to Tripoli. A Venezuelan revolutionary in his twenties, to be known as Carlos the Jackal (Ilich Ramirez Sanchez), is to take credit for planning the operation. He speaks five languages, has been in Europe since 1968, and has been active with Palestinians.

Dec 25 Equatorial Africa's dictator, Francisco Macías Nguema, has 150 of his political opponents executed in football stadium football in Malabo to the amplified sound of a band playing the Mary Hopkin's tune Those Were the Days.


A timeline of events in 1974 - History

  • 1000 - Argentina is sparsely populated by various small tribes. This will continue until Europeans arrive in the 1500s CE.






Brief Overview of the History of Argentina

Argentina was originally settled by many different tribes of people. The first major empire arrived when Inca Empire invaded in 1480. Some of present day Argentina became part of the Incan Empire and some resisted.

In 1516, the Spanish arrived in the person of explorer and navigator Juan Diaz de Solias. Spain would later establish the first colony in Buenos Aires. As Buenos Aires grew in importance as a port city, the Spanish continued to integrate it into their empire. In 1776, they formed the Royalty of Rio de la Plata. It wasn't long, though, before Argentina wanted its independence. Led by Jose de San Martin, they declared their independence on July 9, 1816.

Although they defeated the Spanish, there was still civil war in Argentina for many years. They finally established a constitution in 1853 and a formal national government in 1861. In the early 1900s, Argentina flourished, becoming one of the world's wealthiest nations. Later, however, there would be unrest as the lower class workers felt they were being unfairly treated and did not have a say in the government. Juan Domingo Peron came into power creating a populist movement called Peronism. In 1946 Peron was elected president. His famous wife Eva Peron was very involved in his rise to power and also helped women to get the right to vote in the country.


December 24: Elvis loses interest suddenly in "The New Gladiators", and production is immediately shut down, even though investors responded favorably to a recent presentation. The official explanation, however, centers around the King's recent health problems.

December 30: For the first time, Colonel Parker is forced to cancel an entire engagement, not just a show here and there, due to Elvis' increasingly erratic behavior. In writing, the Colonel directs the management of the Vegas Hilton to contact Dr. Ghanem for "the proper interpretation for the appropriate press release."


Hunger Strikes Leave 10 Dead

March 1, 1981: Bobby Sands, an Irish-Catholic IRA member, starts what will become a 66-day hunger strike. During the strike, he is elected to a vacant seat in British Parliament, but dies May 5. Riots ensue in Belfast and 100,000 attend his funeral. Six more IRA members and three Irish National Liberation Army membersਊlso fast to death before the hunger strike ends in October, and British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher agrees to some of the demands of the protesters, which includes the right to visits, receive mail and wear civilian clothing.

Nov. 15, 1985: With hopes of dampening Sinn Fein support, Thatcher and Irish Taoiseach (prime minister) Garret FitzGerald sign the Anglo-Irish Agreement, an accord stating both governments would formally consult on Northern Ireland, allowing for the possibility of a united nation.

May 8, 1987: Eight IRA members of the Tyrone Brigade are killed during a Special Air Services ambush of the IRA bombing of the Loughgall police station. A former IRA member later said the the shootings led the 𠇏loodgates” to open in terms of new IRA recruits.

Nov. 8, 1987: An IRA bombing intended to hit police security prior to a Remembrance Sunday war memorial service in Enniskillen kills 11𠅊ll civilians𠅊nd injures 63. Occurring near the second anniversary of the Anglo-Irish accord, it’s considered a public relations disaster for the IRA. In 1997, Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams apologizes for the bombing. "I hope there will be no more Enniskillen&aposs and I am deeply sorry about what happened in Enniskillen," he tells the BBC.


Maryland History Timeline

Around 10,000 BCE, the first inhabitants arrive in the geographic area now known as Maryland. Coming upon 1000 BCE, Maryland has more than 8,000 Native Americans from about 40 tribes. And at 1200 CE many permanent Native American villages are established. One of the original 13 colonies, Maryland lies at the center of the Eastern Seaboard, amid the great commercial and population complex that stretches from Maine to Virginia.

17th Century Maryland History Timeline

1608 - Capt. John Smith explored Chesapeake Bay.

1620 - Earliest appearance in Maryland of European objects in archeological context.

1629 - George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore, sails from Newfoundland to Virginia.

1631 - Kent Island trading post and farming settlement established by William Claiborne, member of Virginia council.

1632, June 20 - Maryland Charter granted to Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, by Charles I, King of Great Britain and Ireland.

1633, Nov. 22 - English settlers on Ark and Dove set sail from Cowes, England, for Maryland.

1634, March 25 - Landing of settlers at St. Clement's (now Blakistone) Island (Maryland Day). Calvert party celebrates Feast of Annunciation (March 25) later purchases Indian land, and builds "Fort at St. Mary's City."

1634-1644 - Leonard Calvert, governor.

1634/5, Feb. 26 - First General Assembly (law-making assembly of freemen) met at St. Mary's City.

  • Proprietary vessels clash with those of William Claiborne.
  • A Relation of Maryland published by Jerome Hawley and John Lewger (London).

1636 - Leonard Calvert House (later, Country's House), East St. Mary's, serves as state house and governor's residence.

1637 - St. Mary's County first cited in provincial records.

1638 - Assembly claims protectons of English law Assembly and courts meet at John Lewger's St. John's.

1639 - First elections in province for delegates to Assembly ordered by Governor Calvert on Kent Island, and in hundreds of Mattapanient, St. Michael's, St. Mary's, and St. George's.

1642 - Kent County first cited in records of commissioner appointments.

1643-1644 - Giles Brent, acting provincial governor.

1645 - Ingle's Rebellion: Richard Ingle leads rebellion against proprietary government.

1646-1647 - Leonard Calvert, governor.

1647/8, Jan. 21 - Margaret Brent denied right to vote in General Assembly.

1647-1649 - Thomas Greene, governor.

  • Governor Stone invites Virginia Puritans to settle in Maryland.
  • April 21 - Religious toleration law (An Act concerning Religion) enacted.

1649-1652 - William Stone, governor.

  • The shipwrecked landing of Colonel Norwood and band near site of present-day Ocean City and their month-long stay with hospitable "Berlin" Indians who feed them and nurse them back to health.
  • April - Anne Arundel County created (Chapter 8, Acts of 1650).
  • April 6 - General Assembly divided into an upper and lower house.

1652, March 29 - Parliamentary commissioners displace proprietary regime.

1654 - Patuxent County (later Calvert County) formed by order in council.

1655, March 25 - Puritans from Virginia defeated Gov. William Stone's forces at Battle of the Severn.

1656 - John Hammond's Leah and Rachel, published (London).

  • Lord Baltimore reestablishes proprietary authority.
  • Nov. 30 - Lord Baltimore's claim to Maryland reaffirmed.

1657-1660 - Josias Fendall, governor

  • Lower House votes to compose itself of four delegates per county, elected by freemen.
  • Charles County created by order in council.

1659/60, Jan. 12 - Baltimore County known to have been established by this date, when a writ was issued to county sheriff.

1660 - Bohemia Manor established by Augustine Herrman.

1660-1661 - Philip Calvert, governor.

1661-1676 - Charles Calvert, governor.

1661/62, Feb. 18 - Talbot County known to have been established by this date, when a writ was issued to county sheriff.

1663 - Augustine Herrman, first naturalized citizen of Maryland.

  • Slavery sanctioned by law slaves to serve for life.
  • Construction on Secretary's Office or Council Chamber (later van Swearingen Ordinary), St. Mary's probably begun by this date.
  • Somerset County established by order in council.
  • Assembly agrees to 1-year "stint" on tobacco growing, but Lord Baltimore vetoes bill.
  • A Character of the Province of Maryland, by George Alsop, published (London)

1667 - St. Mary's City incorporated.

1668/69 Feb 16 - Dorchester County known to have been established by this date, when a writ was issued to county sheriff.

  • Voting restricted by Governor to planters with 50-acre freehold or property worth 40 pounds officeholding restricted to owners of 1,000 acres.
  • Authoritative map of Maryland (engraved, London, 1673) completed by Augustine Herrman.
  • George Fox, founder of Religious Society of Friends, preaches in Anne Arundel County. Friends form Maryland Yearly Meeting.
  • Cecil County erected from Baltimore and Kent counties by proclamation of Governor.
  • Brick state house completed at St. Mary's City.
  • In Lower House, Proprietor limits delegates to two per county.

1676-1679 - Thomas Notley, governor.

  • Philip Calvert begins construction of St. Peter's, largest brick structure in province.
  • Governor grants county courts jurisdiction over civil suits.

1679-1684 - Charles Calvert, 3rd Lord Baltimore, governor.

1681 - Josias Fendall found guilty of conspiracy by Provincial Court, which fines and banishes him.

1682 - Quakers begin building Third Haven Meeting House (completed 1684), Talbot County.

  • Assembly passes Act for Advancement of Trade (town act).
  • Labadist community settles at Bohemia Manor.
  • May 15 - Proprietor replaces headright system of land grants with "caution money" or outright purchase.
  • Cambridge on Choptank River laid out by commissioners.
  • Presbyterians under Francis Makemie build church at Snow Hill, first in colonies.

1684-1689 - Council of deputy governors rules Maryland in the name of child Benedict Leonard Calvert.

1685, Aug. 31 - Printing press of William Nuthead used at St. Mary's City by this date.

1689, July-1690, May - Maryland Revolution of 1689. Protestant Associators overthrow proprietary officers.

1690, May-1692, April - Interim government of Protestant Associators.

  • April-1715 - Crown rule William and Mary declare Maryland a royal colony and appoint Sir Lionel Copley governor. Maryland governed as a royal colony rather than as a proprietary province.
  • Church of England made the established church. Royal assent to establishment act given in 1702.

1693, Sept - Sir Thomas Lawrence, governor.

1693/94 - Sir Edmund Andros, governor.

1693/94 - Nicholas Greenberry, governor.

1694/5, Feb - Capital moved from St. Mary's City to Anne Arundel Town. Governor Nicholson lays out plan for capital city.

1694, Dec - Anne Arundel Town renamed Annapolis.

1694-1699 - Sir Francis Nicholson, governor.

1695 - Prince George's County erected from Charles and Calvert counties (Chapter 13, Acts of 1695, May session)

  • Construction begins on new state house and probably on St. Anne's Church, Annapolis.
  • King William's School (later St. John's College) founded at Annapolis by Governor Nicholson and others.
  • Monopoly of slave trade by Royal African Company abolished by Parliament slave imports markedly increase.
  • Kent County courthouse moves from New Yarmouth to New Town (later Chestertown).

1699-1704 - Nathaniel Blackiston (or his appointee), acting governor.

18th Century Maryland History Timeline

  • Construction completed on new state house and St. Anne's Church, Annapolis.
  • Oct - State House burned.

1704-1709 - John Seymour, governor.

  • Queen Anne's County formed.
  • Justus Engelhardt Kuhn, portrait painter, arrived in Maryland.

1708 - The Sot-Weed Factor: Or, A Voyage to Maryland, by Ebenezer Cook, published (London).

1709-1714 - Edward Lloyd (president of council), acting governor.

1710 - Talbot Court House (later East Town or Easton).

1714-1720 - John Hart, governor.

  • Principio Iron Works, Cecil County, financed by English capital.
  • Feb - Crown restored proprietary rights to Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4th Lord Baltimore.
  • April - Charles Calvert succeeded as 5th Lord Baltimore.

1718 - Catholics disenfranchised by Assembly.

1720-1727 - Charles Calvert, governor.

1723 - School and board of visitors in each county mandated by Assembly.

1727, Sept - Maryland Gazette, first newspaper in the Chesapeake, published by William Parks at Annapolis (until 1734).

1727-1731 - Benedict Leonard Calvert, governor.

1729 - Baltimore Town established by charter.

1730 - Sotweed Redivivus, by Ebenezer Cook, published (Annapolis).

1731 - Baltimore Company began ironmaking on Patapsco River.

1731-1732 - Samuel Ogle, governor.

  • Salisbury Town laid out by commissioners.
  • Establishment of boundary line with three lower counties of Pennsylvania, which later became Delaware.

1732-1733 - Charles Calvert, governor.

1733-1742 - Samuel Ogle, governor.

1741 - Oldtown on upper Potomac founded by Thomas Cresap.

  • First Baptist church in Maryland established at Chestnut Ridge, Baltimore County.
  • Worcester County was created and partitioned from Somerset County.

1742-1747 - Thomas Bladen, governor.

1743 - First Lutheran church in Maryland built under David Candler's leadership, Monocacy River.

1744, June 30 - Native-American chiefs of the Six Nations relinquished by treaty all claims to land in colony. Assembly purchased last Indian land claims in Maryland.

  • Tuesday Club formed in Annapolis. Maryland Jockey Club organized first races. Jonas Green revived Maryland Gazette.
  • Daniel Dulany the Elder laid out Frederick Town and invited German settlement.
  • Assembly combined Jones Town and Baltimore Town.
  • Tobacco inspection law enabled Maryland to control quality of exports established multiple inspection points to ensure export of only quality leaf, and set clerical and proprietary officers' fees.
  • May - Reformed Lutheran congregation organized by Michael Schlatter in Frederick.

1747-1752 - Samuel Ogle, governor.

1748 - Frederick County erected from Baltimore and Prince George's counties.

1750 - Ohio Company established trading post at Will's Creek on Potomac River. About same time, John Stevenson shipped cargo of flour to Ireland, first in an export trade that spurred development of Baltimore.

1752 - John Moale sketched Baltimore Town.

1752-1753 - Benjamin Tasker (president of council), acting governor.

1753-1769 - Horatio Sharpe, governor.

1754 - Fort Cumberland constructed by militiamen.

  • Gen. Edward Braddock led expedition through Maryland to the west. French and Indians defeated Braddock's forces near Fort Duquesne. Indians attacked western settlers.
  • French-speaking Catholics arrived in Baltimore from Nova Scotia.

1756 - Assembly supplied funds for Fort Frederick, near North Mountain.

1762 - Elizabeth Town (later Hagerstown) laid out by Jonathan Hager.

1763 - First volunteer fire company, later Mechanical Company, formed in Baltimore.

1763-1767 - Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon surveyed boundary line with Pennsylvania.

  • Daniel Dulany, Jr., denounced Stamp Act in Considerations on the Propriety of Imposing Taxes in the British Colonies (Annapolis).
  • Nov. 23 - Stamp Act resistance at Frederick.

1766 - Sons of Liberty organized in Baltimore County.

1767 - Annapolis merchants sent Charles Willson Peale to London to study painting with Benjamin West.

1768 - Baltimore County seat moved from Joppa to Baltimore Town.

  • Maryland merchants adopted policy of nonimportation of British goods.
  • First smallpox hospital in colonies established by Henry Stevenson, Baltimore.

1769-1776 - Robert Eden, governor.

1771 - First brick theater in America opened in Annapolis.

  • Ellicott brothers erected largest flour mill in Maryland on Patapsco River.
  • First Methodist house of worship in colonies, the John Evans House, built under leadership of Robert Strawbridge in Frederick (later Carroll) County.
  • March 28 - Cornerstone laid for new State House in Annapolis.
  • Assembly united Fells Point and Baltimore Town.
  • Maryland Gazette carried "Antilon" and "First Citizen" debate on officers' fees. William Goddard began printing Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser.
  • Caroline County erected from Dorchester and Queen Anne's counties.
  • Harford County formed from Baltimore County.
  • Catoctin Iron Furnace, Frederick County.
  • April 19 - Last colonial General Assembly prorogued.
  • June 22 - First Provincial Convention (an extralegal body) met at Annapolis, and sent delegates to First Continental Congress.
  • Aug - Baltimoreans shipped cargo of corn, rye, and bread to people of Boston.
  • Oct. 19 - Mob burned Peggy Stewart in Annapolis harbor.

Dec - Mordecai Gist formed Baltimore Independent Cadets.

  • March 22 - "Bush Declaration" signed, Bush River, Harford County, patriots call for independence.
  • July 18 - Rifle companies under Michael Cresap and Thomas Price depart Frederick Town to join Washington's army at Boston.
  • July 26 - Association of Freemen formed by Maryland Convention.
  • Aug. 29 - Council of Safety organized.
  • Dec - Association of Freemen began recruiting troops.
  • Colonel William Smallwood organized First Battalion of Maryland (forerunner of Maryland Line), Captain James Nicholson commanded Maryland sloop Defence.
  • Montgomery County created from Frederick County.
  • Washington County created from Frederick County.
  • March - Whig Club formed in Baltimore.
  • June 26 - Departure of Robert Eden, Maryland's last colonial governor.
  • July 4 - Declaration of Independence adopted in Philadelphia. Engrossed copy signed by Marylanders William Paca, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Thomas Stone, and Samuel Chase.
  • July 6 - Maryland Convention declared independence from Great Britain.
  • Aug. 14-Nov. 11 - Constitutional Convention of 1776 (meeting of Ninth Provincial Convention).
  • Aug. 27 - Maryland soldiers fought at Battle of Long Island (under Mordecai Gist fought crucial delaying action at Gowanus Creek) continued to engage the British at later battles, including White Plains, and Harlem Heights.
  • Nov. 3 - Declaration of Rights (Maryland's Bill of Rights) adopted by Ninth Provincial Convention. Church of England disestablished.
  • Nov. 8 - First State Constitution adopted by Ninth Provincial Convention.
  • Feb. 5 - First General Assembly elected under State Constitution of 1776 met at Annapolis.
  • March 21 - Inauguration of Thomas Johnson, first governor elected by General Assembly. Council of Safety disbanded.
  • Sept. 11 - Maryland soldiers fought at Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania.

1777-1779 - Thomas Johnson, governor.

1778 - Count Casimir Pulaski raised independent troops, Baltimore.

1779 - Maryland Anglicans referred to themselves as Protestant Episcopal Church.

1779-1782 - Thomas Sim Lee, governor.

  • Baltimore became port of entry.
  • Aug. 16 - In South Carolina, Maryland soldiers fought at Battle of Camden..
  • Jan. 17 - Maryland soldiers fought and, under John Eager Howard, played decisive role at Battle of Cowpens in South Carolina.
  • Feb. 2 - Property of Loyalists and British subjects confiscated.
  • March 1 - Maryland ratified, and thereby made effective, the Articles of Confederation.
  • March 15 - In North Carolina, Maryland soldiers fought at Battle of Guilford Courthouse.
  • Sept. 8 - Maryland soldiers fought at Battle of Eutaw Springs in South Carolina.
  • Nov. 5 - John Hanson elected President of the United States in Congress Assembled.

1782 - Washington College (formerly Kent Academy) established at Chestertown.

1782-1785 - William Paca, governor.

  • Freemasons, meeting at Talbot Court House, formed Maryland Grand Lodge.
  • Nov. 26-1784, June 3 - Annapolis served as capital to newly forming American nation when Continental Congress met at Annapolis.
  • Dec. 23 - George Washington resigned commission as commander in chief of Continental Army at State House in Annapolis.
  • Potomac Company chartered by Maryland and Virginia.
  • John Frederick Amelung and party established New Bremen glassworks, Frederick County.
  • Jan. 14 - Treaty of Paris, ending Revolutionary War, ratified by Congress at Annapolis.
  • June - Edward Warren, Baltimore, made first balloon ascension in United States aboard balloon designed by Peter Carnes, Bladensburg.
  • Dec - Methodist Christmas Conference, Baltimore, established Methodist Episcopal Church in America.
  • Dec. 30 - St. John's College established at Annapolis. General Assembly designated it, with Washington College, as University of Maryland.
  • German Evangelical Reformed congregation under Philip William Otterbein built United Brethren Church, Baltimore.
  • March 28 - Mt. Vernon Compact, an agreement on navigation and fishing in the tidewaters of the Potomac River and the Chesapeake Bay, negotiated and signed by Maryland Commissioners Thomas Stone, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, and Samuel Chase, and Virginia Commissioners.
  • Aug - China trade began with John O'Donnell's arrival at Baltimore with cargo from Canton, China.

1785-1788 - William Smallwood, governor.

  • Matthias Bartgis began newspaper publishing in Frederick.
  • March 12 - Mt. Vernon Compact ratified by Maryland.
  • Sept. 11-14 - Annapolis Convention of delegates from several states met at Mann's Tavern, Annapolis, to discuss revisions to Articles of Confederation. Maryland sent no representatives.
  • Toll roads connecting Baltimore with Frederick, Westminster, Hanover, and York authorized by General Assembly.
  • Friends' Yearly Meeting, Baltimore, condemned slavery.
  • Sept. 17 - US Constitution signed by Marylanders Daniel Carroll, James McHenry, and Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, at Philadelphia.
  • Nov. 29 - Luther Martin's report, The Genuine Information, criticized proposed US Constitution, including its omission of a bill of rights.
  • Dec - Cokesbury College, Abingdon, opened by Methodists.
  • Dec - Steamboat launched by James Rumsey on Potomac River near Shepherdstown, Virginia.
  • April 28 - Maryland Convention ratified US Constitution, making Maryland the seventh state to do so. Convention adjourned without recommending amendments.
  • May 1 - Parade and festival (following ratification of federal constitution) gave name to Federal Hill, Baltimore.

1788-1791 - John Eager Howard, governor.

  • Allegany County created from Washington County.
  • Georgetown College chartered.
  • Maryland Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and the Relief of Poor Negroes and Others Unlawfully Held in Bondage formed at Baltimore.
  • General meeting of Roman Catholic clergy recommended John Carroll to be pastor of American church.
  • Dec. 19 - Maryland ratified federal Bill of Rights, first ten amendments to US Constitution.
  • Easton incorporated. Easton Maryland Herald published by James Cowan.
  • Stewart Herbert began printing Elizabeth Town Washington Spy, first newspaper west of Blue Ridge Mountains.
  • Aug - By papal direction, Bishop Charles Walmsley consecrated John Carroll as bishop of Baltimore, at Ludworth Castle, England.
  • Benjamin Banneker published almanac.
  • Dec. 19 - Maryland ceded land for federal District of Columbia.

1791-1792 - George Plater, governor.

  • Courthouse opened at Queen Anne's County seat, Centreville.
  • African Americans formed Sharp Street Methodist Church, Baltimore.

1792-1794 - Thomas Sim Lee (Federalist), governor.

1793 - Refugees from Haitian slave uprising arrived in Baltimore.

  • First of many yellow fever epidemics struck Baltimore.
  • Baltimore Equitable Society, first fire insurance company in Maryland, formed.

1794-1797 - John H. Stone (Federalist), governor.

1795 - Bank of Baltimore established. Federal government sited post office at Cumberland.

  • Maryland law forbade import of slaves for sale, permitted voluntary slave emancipation.
  • Baltimore City incorporated.

1797, Sept - David Stodder's shipyard, Harris Creek, launched US Frigate Constellation.

1797-1798 - John Henry (Federalist), governor.

1798-1801 - Benjamin Ogle (Federalist), governor.

1799 - Construction began on Fort McHenry, Baltimore. Alexander Martin established Baltimore American and Daily Advertiser.

19th Century Maryland History Timeline

1801-1803 - John Francis Mercer (Democratic-Republican), governor.

  • Property qualifications for voting removed by constitutional amendment in local and State elections (granting suffrage to adult white males).
  • Daniel Coker ministered to black Methodists, Baltimore.

1803 - Viva voce voting at elections changed to voting by ballot.

1803-1806 - Robert Bowie (Democratic-Republican), governor.

  • Baltimore Water Company formed (chartered 1792).
  • Gunpowder Copper Works, a mining operation, established by Levi Hollingsworth.
  • Construction started for Basilica of the Assumption, America's first Roman Catholic cathedral. Designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe, main section completed 1818.
  • Maximilien Godefroy designed first Gothic Revival structure in United States, St. Mary's Seminary Chapel, Baltimore (completed 1808).

1806-1809 - Robert Wright (Democratic-Republican), governor.

1807, Dec. 18 - University of Maryland chartered at Baltimore as the College of Medicine of Maryland.

  • Elizabeth Seton opened female academy, Baltimore.
  • John Dubois established Mount St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg.
  • Washington Cotton Manufacturing Company, Mount Washington, first in State, incorporated.
  • Elizabeth Seton adopted modified rule of Sisters of Charity, established order in Emmitsburg.
  • St. Joseph's College, Emmitsburg, founded.

1809-1811 - Edward Lloyd V (Democratic-Republican), governor.

  • Adult white male suffrage extended by constitutional amendment to federal elections property qualification ended in voting for electors for president, vice-president, and congressmen.
  • Property qualifications for State officeholding abolished by constitutional amendment.
  • Free blacks disenfranchised.
  • Hezekiah Niles began publishing Niles' Register in Baltimore.
  • Work started on National Road.
  • Alexander Brown & Sons opened as investment banking firm, Baltimore.

1811-1812 - Robert Bowie (Democratic-Republican), governor.

  • College of Medicine chartered as University of Maryland, Baltimore.
  • Thomas Kemp, Fells Point, launched Baltimore Clipper Chasseur, later famous under command of Thomas Boyle.
  • July - Mob attacked Alexander Contee Hanson, editor of Baltimore Federal Republican, and party.

1812-1816 - Levin Winder (Federalist), governor.

  • Chesapeake, first steamboat, appeared on Chesapeake Bay.
  • British conducted raids on Chesapeake targets, including Havre de Grace.
  • Hagerstown incorporated (Chapter 121, Acts of 1813, Dec. session).
  • Aug - Rembrandt Peale opened Baltimore Museum and Gallery of Fine Arts, designed by Robert Cary Long, Sr.
  • Aug. 24 - Battle of Bladensburg, sailors and marines under Joshua Barney fought rear-guard action.
  • Sept. 12 - British repulsed by local militia at Battle of North Point.
  • Sept. 13 - Bombardment of Fort McHenry inspired Francis Scott Key to write "Star-Spangled Banner."
  • Charles Reeder established steam-engine manufactory and foundry, Federal Hill.
  • Baltimoreans laid cornerstones for Robert Mills's Washington Monument (July completed 1829) and Godefroy's Battle Monument (Sept. completed 1825).
  • Rembrandt Peale demonstrated gas lighting at his museum.
  • Delphian Club organized, Baltimore.
  • Daniel Coker and other black church leaders formed independent African Methodist Episcopal Church.

1816-1819 - Charles Ridgely (Federalist), governor.

  • Maximilien Godefroy, architect, began Unitarian Temple, Baltimore.
  • Maryland auxiliary of American Colonization Society formed, Baltimore.
  • Feb - Gas Light Company incorporated to provide streetlights in Baltimore, first such firm in country.
  • National Road completed from Cumberland to Wheeling, now West Virginia.
  • Savings Bank of Baltimore, first of its kind in State.
  • Maryland Agricultural Society organized, Baltimore.
  • Charles Goldsborough (Federalist), governor.
  • John Stuart Skinner published American Farmer, Baltimore.
  • Independent Order of Odd Fellows organized in Baltimore.
  • March 6 - In M'Culloch v. Maryland, US Chief Justice John Marshall interpreted Constitution to signify implied powers of federal government.

1819-1822 - Samuel Sprigg (Republican), governor.

1822 - Isaac McKim milled flour with steam power, Baltimore, first such operation in country.

1822-1826 - Samuel Stevens, Jr. (Republican), governor.

1824 - Benjamin Lundy published the Genius of Universal Emancipation, Baltimore.

1824-1829 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal constructed through Cecil County to link Chesapeake Bay with Delaware River.

  • Thomas Kensett began canning oysters in Baltimore.
  • Jewish enfranchisement, religious qualification for civil office removed.

1826-1829 - Joseph Kent (Republican), governor.

  • Feb. 28 - Baltimore and Ohio Railroad chartered.
  • July - Boonsboro citizens erected monument to George Washington, South Mountain.
  • Maryland and Virginia Steam Boat Company offered regular Baltimore to Norfolk service.
  • Maryland Penitentiary directors appointed committee to recommend plans for expansion.
  • June - Baltimore Shot Tower begun.
  • July 4 - First earth turned for construction of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (chartered Feb. 1827) and Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.

1828-1848 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal constructed (to Cumberland by 1848).

  • Work began on Baltimore and Susquehanna Railroad (completed to Pennsylvania line 1832).
  • Oblate Sisters of Providence opened school for black children, Baltimore.
  • Baltimore & Ohio Railroad's Carrollton Viaduct, first masonry railroad bridge in country, crossed Gwynn's Falls.
  • John M. Dyer and twelve others organized State's first Jewish congregation, Nidhei Israel, Baltimore.
  • Chesapeake and Delaware Canal opened.

1829-1830 - Daniel Martin (anti-Jackson), governor.

  • Peter Cooper and other investors started earliest planned industrial area in country at Canton, Baltimore.
  • Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Station at Mount Clare, first in United States.

1830-1831 - Thomas King Carroll (Democrat), governor.

  • Howard heirs donated land for parks to extend north, south, east, and west of Washington Monument, Baltimore.
  • Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Station, Ellicott's Mills.
  • Feb - Maryland Colonization Society formed in Baltimore.

1831-1833 - George Howard (anti-Jackson), governor.

  • Swallow Barn, by John Pendleton Kennedy, published.
  • In aftermath of Nat Turner rebellion in Virginia, Maryland laws enacted to restrict free blacks.
  • Legislation prohibited oyster dredging.
  • First omnibus lines began operating in Baltimore.
  • Oct - Baltimore Saturday Morning Visitor published Edgar Allan Poe's "Ms. Found in a Bottle," winner of fifty-dollar prize.
  • Nov - First settlers sail for Cape Palmas, Liberia.

1833-1836 - James Thomas (anti-Jackson), governor.

1834 - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad reaches Harpers Ferry.

  • Improved Order of Red Men (secret fraternal society) organized Great Council of Maryland, Baltimore.
  • George's Creek Coal and Iron Company formed.
  • Baltimore & Ohio Railroad's Thomas Viaduct, first multispan masonry railroad bridge in country, crossed Patapsco River at Relay.
  • Aug. 6-8 - Baltimore mobs demonstrated against Bank of Maryland and its directors .
  • Aug. 25 - Baltimore and Washington Railroad opened.

1836-1839 - Thomas W. Veazey (Whig), governor.

  • Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney wrote majority opinion in Charles River v. Warren Bridge case.
  • Whig-controlled General Assembly enacted law for popular election of governors and State senators, and rotated geographical districts of successive governors.
  • Carroll County formed from Baltimore and Frederick counties.
  • May 17 - Baltimore Sun began publication under Arunah S. Abell.
  • Frederick Douglass escaped from slavery in Baltimore.
  • Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore Railroad Company formed.
  • Oct. 3 - Governor and State senators first elected by voters rather than by legislature.
  • Mercantile Library Association.
  • Baltimore City Council established Central High School (later City College).
  • David Carroll and Horatio Gambrill opened textile mills, Hamden-Woodberry.

1839-1842 - William Grason (Democrat), governor.

  • Washington Temperance Society.
  • Baltimore Steam Packet Company (Old Bay Line).
  • Baltimore College of Dental Surgery founded.

1841 - Maryland College of Pharmacy.

1842-1845 - Francis Thomas (Democrat), governor.

  • Jan - Maryland Historical Society founded.
  • May 24 - Samuel F. B. Morse demonstrated telegraph line, sent first telegraph message from Washington, DC, to Baltimore.
  • Lloyd Street Synagogue constructed in Baltimore, first Maryland synagogue, a Robert Cary Long, Jr., design.
  • Frederick Douglass published Narrative of his life in slavery.
  • Baltimore and Cuba Smelting and Mining Company, Baltimore.
  • Oct. 10 - US Naval Academy founded at Annapolis, when Department of the Navy established officers' training school at Fort Severn, Annapolis.

1845-1848 - Thomas G. Pratt (Whig), governor.

1846 - James Corner opened first transatlantic packet line, Baltimore to Liverpool.

  • State Agricultural Chemist, first such in country.
  • John Nepomucene Neumann, Redemptorist priest, built Saints Peter and Paul Catholic Church, Baltimore.

1848-1851 - Philip Francis Thomas (Democrat), governor.

  • Harriet Tubman escaped slavery in Dorchester County.
  • Josiah Henson, former Charles County slave, published his Life.
  • Baltimore railroad stations at President St. (Philadelphia, Wilmington, & Baltimore Railroad) and Calvert St. (Baltimore & Susquehanna Railroad).
  • Sun Iron Building built, Baltimore's first all-iron structure.
  • Oct - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal reached Cumberland.
  • Nov. 4-1851, May 13 - Constitutional Convention of 1850-1851.
  • June 14 - Second State Constitution adopted Howard District recognized as Howard County.
  • Three-masted clipper Seaman, Baltimore, established speed record for sail (94 days) from San Francisco to Cape Henry.

1851-1854 - Enoch Louis Lowe (Democrat), governor.

  • Thomas Kerney introduced bill to aid parochial schools.
  • Loyola College, Baltimore, founded.
  • Association of Maryland Pilots formed.
  • Boston Steamship Company (later Merchants and Miners Transportation) began coastal shipping service, Baltimore.
  • July - Statewide convention of free blacks, Baltimore.
  • Nov - Evangelical groups formed Young Men's Christian Association, Baltimore.

Dec - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad lines reached Wheeling, Virginia.

  • Henry Sonneborn, Baltimore, began manufacturing clothing.
  • Baltimore, Carroll, and Frederick Railroad organized, later became Western Maryland Railroad.

1854 - Baltimore County seat moved to Towson Town.

1854-1858 - Thomas Watkins Ligon (Democrat), governor.

1854-1859 - Rise of Know Nothing Party. Baltimore riots named city "Mobtown."

  • Mary Whitridge, Baltimore-built clipper ship, set transatlantic sailing record (12 1/2 days) never broken.
  • Nov 7 - Know-Nothing Party won elections.
  • Camden St. Station (Baltimore & Ohio Railroad), Baltimore.
  • Hebrew Benevolent Society, Baltimore.
  • Oct.-Nov - Election violence, Baltimore.
  • Baltimore gentlemen formed Maryland Club.
  • Chief Justice Taney wrote majority opinion in case of Dred Scott v. Sanford.
  • Peabody Institute founded in Baltimore (Institute now affiliated with The Johns Hopkins University).

1858-1862 - Thomas Holliday Hicks (Know-Nothing), governor.

  • First horsecar line, Baltimore.
  • Oct. 6 - Maryland Agricultural College opened at College Park, Prince George's County.
  • Oct. 16 - John Brown launched raid from Maryland on federal arsenal in Harper's Ferry, West Virginia.
  • Druid Hill Park opened, Baltimore.
  • General Assembly passed Jacobs bill to enslave free blacks, but measure failed referendum.
  • Irish-born population of Baltimore City peaked (15,536 of 212,418).
  • May - Constitutional Union party formed in Baltimore.
  • Nov - Maryland voters gave John C. Breckinridge (Southern rights Democrat) 42,482 votes, John Bell (Constitutional Union) 41,760, Stephen A. Douglas (popular sovereignty Democrat) 5,966, and Abraham Lincoln (Republican) 2,294 in presidential election.
  • Peabody Institute (later west wing) opened in Baltimore.
  • April - James Ryder Randall wrote "Maryland, My Maryland".
  • April 19 - Sixth Massachusetts Union Regiment attacked by Baltimore mob.
  • April 22 - Federal troops occupied Annapolis.
  • April 26 - General Assembly met in special session at Frederick.
  • April 27 - President Lincoln suspended writ of habeas corpus between Washington and Philadelphia.
  • May 13 - Gen. Benjamin F. Butler's Union forces occupied Baltimore.
  • May 27-28 - Sitting on circuit, Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney called in vain for release of John Merryman.
  • June - Military arrested Baltimore police board members.
  • June 13 - Congressional elections returned Unionist delegation.
  • Sept. 11 - Secretary of War Simon Cameron ordered arrest of secessionist members of General Assembly.
  • Nov - Voters defeated states' rights candidate for governor, Benjamin Chew Howard.
  • May 23 - Marylanders opposed one another at Battle of Front Royal.
  • June 16 - Confederate cavalry entered Cumberland.
  • Sept. 14 - Battle of South Mountain Union troops forced Confederates from Crampton's and Turner's gaps.
  • Sept. 17 - Battle of Antietam (or Sharpsburg), 4,800 dead, 18,000 wounded.
  • Oct. 10-12 - Gen. Jeb Stuart's cavalry rode through Washington, Frederick and Montgomery counties during raid into Pennsylvania.

1862-1866 - Augustus W. Bradford (Unionist), governor.

1863, late June- early July - Lee's army passed through Washington County en route to Gettysburg and in retreat.

  • April 27-Sept. 6 - Constitutional Convention of 1864 met in Annapolis.
  • July 6 - Hagerstown held for ransom by Confederate forces under Gen. Jubal Early.
  • July 9 - Frederick held for ransom by Confederate forces under Gen. Jubal Early.
  • July 9 - Battle of Monocacy Confederates defeated Gen. Lew Wallace, and sent cavalry raiders north of Baltimore, then back through Prince George's County.
  • Oct. 12-13, 29 - Gov. Bradford declared Third State Constitution adopted after soldiers' vote was added to election totals. Soldiers' vote assured adoption of 1864 constitution, which abolished slavery (effective Nov. 1) and required strict loyalty oath of voters. A test oath was required of all voters.

Nov. 1 - Maryland slaves emancipated by State Constitution of 1864.

  • Chesapeake Marine Railway and Dry Dock Company, first black-owned business in State, established by Isaac Myers.
  • General Assembly permitted oyster dredging, but only under sail.
  • April - John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Abraham Lincoln, escaped through Prince George's and Charles counties.
  • Oct - Frederick Douglass dedicated Douglass Institute named in his honor, Baltimore.

1866 - First library of Peabody Institute opened.

1866-1869 - Thomas Swann (Unionist Democrat), governor.

  • Centenary Biblical Institute chartered under auspices of Methodist Episcopal Church later became Morgan State University.
  • Wicomico County created from Somerset and Worcester counties.
  • Isaac Freeman Rasin won election to clerkship, Baltimore City Court of Common Pleas.
  • Knights of Pythias formed in Baltimore.
  • May 8-Aug. 17 - Constitutional Convention of 1867 Democrats rewrote constitution.
  • Sept. 18 - Fourth State Constitution adopted by voters.
  • State Oyster Police authorized.
  • Western Maryland College (now McDaniel College) chartered by Methodists (organized 1866).
  • Regular steamship service between Baltimore and Bremen inaugurated by Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and North German Lloyd.
  • Arthur Pue Gorman won seat in House of Delegates.
  • Wendel A. Bollman built iron truss bridge for Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at Savage.
  • July - Isaac Myers and black caulkers in Baltimore formed national black labor union.

1869-1872 - Oden Bowie (Democrat), governor.

  • University of Maryland School of Law reopened.
  • Maryland Jockey Club sponsored racing at Pimlico track.
  • May - Baltimore African Americans parade to celebrate passage of Fifteenth Amendment to US Constitution.
  • Garrett County formed from Allegany County.
  • General Assembly mandated separate but equal white and black schools.
  • Western Maryland Railroad completed line, Hagerstown to Baltimore.

1872-1874 - William Pinkney Whyte (Democrat), governor.

  • School Sisters of Notre Dame established College of Notre Dame of Maryland, Baltimore, first Catholic women's college in United States.
  • May - Allegany County coal miners established Protective and Benevolent Association.
  • July - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad opens Deer Park Hotel, Garrett County.

1874 - Commissioners of Fisheries authorized.

1874-1876 - James Black Groome (Democrat), governor.

  • Ceremonies dedicated Baltimore City Hall, a George Frederick design.
  • Work began on east or library wing, Peabody Institute (completed 1878).
  • Atlantic Hotel constructed, first hotel in Ocean City.
  • Railroad/carriage trestle crossed Sinepuxent Bay at Ocean City.
  • Oct. 3 - The Johns Hopkins University opened in Baltimore.

1876-1880 - John Lee Carroll (Democrat), governor.

  • Jan. 16 - Maryland-Virginia boundary in lower Chesapeake Bay demarcated by Jenkins-Black Award.
  • July 20-22 - Baltimore and Ohio Railroad strike workers went on strike along line, demonstrated in Cumberland, struck and rioted at Baltimore.
  • William Brooks established Chesapeake Zoological Laboratory, Hampton Roads.
  • Young men returned from Newport, Rhode Island, with lacrosse sticks.
  • Knights of Labor organized, Baltimore.

1879 - Telephone exchange opened in Baltimore, first in State.

  • Consolidated Gas Company founded at Baltimore.
  • Electrical energy debuted in Maryland at Sun Building, Baltimore.

1880-1884 - William T. Hamilton (Democrat), governor.

1881, Sept - Oriole Festival celebrated opening of Loch Raven Reservoir.

  • Baltimore reformers won "good judges" election.
  • Harry Vonderhorst sponsored Baltimore team in American Association of baseball clubs.
  • Colored High School opened, Baltimore.
  • Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company formed.
  • Baltimore & Ohio Railroad opened polygonal Passenger Car Shop, largest such structure in world, Baltimore.

1884 - General Assembly, pressured by Knights of Labor, created Bureau of Industrial Statistics and Information.

1884-1885 - Robert M. McLane (Democrat), governor.

  • Baltimore civic leaders established Reform League.
  • African American leaders established Mutual Brotherhood of Liberty.
  • Woman's College of Baltimore chartered by Methodists, later became Goucher College.
  • Bryn Mawr School, Baltimore, founded by M. Carey Thomas.
  • Baltimore-Union Passenger Railway Company, first commercial electric street railway in country.

1885-1888 - Henry Lloyd (Democrat), governor.

  • Linotype machine perfected by Ottmar Mergenthaler, Baltimore.
  • Maryland Progressive State Colored Teachers Association formed.
  • Jan. 5 - Enoch Pratt Free Library opened in Baltimore.
  • Pennsylvania Steel (Maryland Steel, 1891) built blast furnace at Sparrows Point.
  • Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr., designed summer retreat, Sudbrook Park, near Pikesville.
  • Voters north and west of Baltimore City agreed to annexation.
  • Oct - Maryland flag of Calvert and Crossland colors flown at monument dedication ceremonies, Gettysburg.

1888-1889 - Oyster Wars Maryland and Virginia watermen fought on Chesapeake Bay.

1888-1892. Elihu E. Jackson(Democrat), governor.

  • Baltimore Federation of Labor.
  • Henrietta Szold opened school for Jewish immigrant children.
  • May - Floodwaters inundated Cumberland.
  • May 7 - The Johns Hopkins Hospital dedicated in Baltimore.
  • Morgan College formed from Centenary Biblical Institute.
  • Columbian Iron Works, Baltimore, produced Maverick, first steel tanker ship in United States.
  • German-born population of Baltimore City peaked (41,930 of 365,863).
  • Harry S. Cummings won seat on Baltimore City Council, first black in State to hold major elective office.
  • Australian secret ballot in elections adopted.

1891 - Charles H. Grasty assumed control of Baltimore Evening News.

  • State Weather Service started.
  • Baltimore Afro-American founded by John H. Murphy, Sr.
  • Francis G. Newlands developed Chevy Chase.

1892-1896 - Frank Brown (Democrat), governor.

  • Women's College of Frederick founded, later became Hood College.
  • Oct - The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine opened in Baltimore, accepting women.
  • First child labor law passed first pure milk law passed.
  • Baltimore women formed Arundell Club.
  • Provident Hospital, Baltimore, founded by William T. Carr and William H. Thompson.
  • "Coxey's army" passed through State.
  • Baltimore Orioles won their first professional baseball championship.
  • June - Frostburg coal strike.
  • Maryland Bar Association held first convention.
  • Reformers carried Baltimore City and State elections.
  • Charles County seat moved from Port Tobacco to La Plata.
  • Maryland adopted improved "secret" ballot.
  • General Assembly ended practice of electing one US senator from Eastern Shore, passed law restraining courts from compelling reporters to divulge their sources.
  • Office of Game Warden established.
  • Columbian Iron Works built Argonaut, path-breaking submarine.

1896-1900 - Lloyd Lowndes (Republican), governor.

  • Maryland Public Health Association formed, Baltimore.
  • Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., planned west side of Roland Park (company organized 1891).

1898 - Baltimore obtained reformed city charter.

  • William B. Clark issued report on State roads.
  • Baltimore Municipal Art Society formed.
  • Building program began at Naval Academy, Ernest Flagg architect.
  • Nov - Maryland Federation of Women's Clubs organized.

20th Century Maryland History Timeline

1900-1904 - John Walter Smith (Democrat), governor.

  • Regulations for miners' work conditions enacted.
  • Child labor under age twelve forbidden by law.
  • Workmen's compensation law enacted (overturned in courts), first such law in US
  • Compulsory school attendance law passed.
  • Maryland Woman Suffrage Association led by Emma J. Maddox Funck.
  • Kerbin "Jim Crow" public accommodations law enacted.
  • Maryland Association for the Prevention and Relief of Tuberculosis formed, Baltimore.
  • Sinclair-Scott began making Maryland motorcar.
  • Feb 7-8 - Baltimore fire, 70 blocks in heart of business district devastated.

1904-1908 - Edwin Warfield (Democrat), governor.

1905 - Nov - Voters defeated black-disenfranchising Poe amendment.

  • Haman Act enacted, encouraged oyster-bed leasing, established Shell Fish Commission, and provided for survey of Chesapeake Bay bottom.
  • State Board of Forestry created.
  • Equal Suffrage League organized by Elizabeth King Ellicott, Baltimore.
  • March - Maryland Historical Magazine, edited by William Hand Browne, first published by Maryland Historical Society.
  • Nov - "Anchors Aweigh" composed by Charles A. Zimmerman, Naval Academy bandmaster, and midshipman Alfred Hart Miles performed at Army-Navy football game that year later dedicated to Class of 1907.
  • Washington County experimented successfully with horse-drawn bookmobile.
  • Nov - The Johns Hopkins University accepted women graduate students.
  • Primary elections (for some localities) and campaign reform enacted,
  • State Roads Commission created.
  • Board of Agriculture formed.
  • H. L. Mencken became literary editor of Smart Set.

1908-1912 - Austin Lane Crothers (Democrat), governor.

  • Voters defeated Straus anti-black voting amendment.
  • Greek Orthodox parish, first in State, formed in Baltimore.
  • April 6 - Matthew Henson, of Charles County, reached North Pole with Robert Peary.
  • Workmen's compensation law redrafted and enacted.
  • Pure food and drug laws and anti-prostitution measures enacted.
  • State Commissioner of Motor Vehicles authorized.
  • Public Service Commission established.
  • Russian-born population of Baltimore (including Eastern European) peaked (24,798 of 558,485).
  • Aug. 30 - First statewide primary election in Maryland.
  • Nov - Hubert Latham flew over Baltimore during Halethorpe air meet.
  • Baltimore completed sewerage system.
  • Army established flying school at College Park.
  • US Navy used Greenbury Point, Annapolis, as air station.
  • Digges voting amendment defeated.

Isaac E. Emerson built Emerson or "Bromo-Seltzer" Tower, Baltimore.

  • Ten-hour work law for women, strengthened child-labor laws enacted.
  • Haman oyster law enacted,
  • Party presidential primaries adopted.
  • Maryland Suffrage News began publication under Edith H. Hooker.
  • Ukrainian Greek Catholics purchased land for St. Michael's Church, South Wolfe St., Baltimore.

1912-1916 - Phillips Lee Goldsborough (Republican), governor.

1913 - Baltimore Chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), formed, second oldest in country.

1914 - Babe Ruth pitched for International League Orioles.

  • Abraham Flexner and John Backman presented report on State public education.
  • Education reform measures enacted.

Nov. 2 - Referendum and County Home Rule amendments adopted.

  • State Board of Motion Picture Censors authorized.
  • State Conservation Commission created from State Fishery Force, Shell Fish Commission, and Game Warden.
  • The Johns Hopkins University moved to Homewood in Baltimore.
  • Feb - Baltimore Symphony Orchestra organized under Gustav Strube.
  • Nov - Vagabond Players, Baltimore, staged first performance.
  • Nov. 7 - Executive budget process, mandating balanced State budgets, established by constitutional amendment.

1916-1920 - Emerson C. Harrington (Democrat), governor.

  • Compulsory work law enacted.
  • State Council of Defense named.
  • Federal government established Camp Meade (now Fort Meade).
  • US Army placed Maryland militia units in new 29th Division.
  • Aberdeen Proving Ground, first testing center of US Army, established.
  • Edgewood Arsenal formed.
  • Maryland troops fought at Battle of Neuse-Argonne, France.
  • Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission created.
  • Baltimore expanded city limits.
  • Rockefeller Foundation funded School of Hygiene and Public Health at The Johns Hopkins University.
  • H. L. Mencken published first book of Prejudices.
  • Baltimore Orioles won first of six International League pennants.
  • Merit system established for State employees, replaced many politically filled positions in State government.
  • Central Purchasing Bureau reformed State expenditures.
  • State Athletic Commission formed.
  • Maryland Racing Commission created.
  • University of Maryland united agricultural college and Baltimore professional schools.
  • Logan Field (formerly Dundalk Flying Field) dedicated, Baltimore.
  • State's first Air National Guard unit.
  • Nov. 2 - Women voted for first time in Maryland.

1920-1935 - Albert C. Ritchie (Democrat), governor.

  • Eubie Blake staged "Shuffle Along," New York City.
  • Jan - Associated Jewish Charities formed, Baltimore.
  • Quadrennial Elections Amendment mandated general elections every four years instead of every two (effective 1926).
  • Equalization of school spending among counties authorized.
  • Ku Klux Klan rallied in Frederick and Baltimore.
  • Commercial radio stations broadcasted in Baltimore.
  • Albert C. Ritchie campaigned for Democratic presidential nomination.
  • Edna Ferber gathered material for Showboat aboard James Adams's barge Playhouse.
  • H. L. Mencken began editing American Mercury.
  • Floods destroyed much of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal.
  • Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons Island, started as research station by Reginald V. Truitt.
  • Maryland and Virginia passed legislation protecting blue crab.
  • Ammon H. Kreider and Lewis E. Reisner began building single-engine airplanes, Hagerstown.

1926 - Baltimore equalized pay for black and white teachers.

  • Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission formed.
  • Interracial Commission created.

1928 - Grammar-school education mandated.

  • Glenn L. Martin moved aircraft plant from Ohio to Middle River, Baltimore County.
  • New Baltimore Trust Building erected, tallest structure in Baltimore.
  • Baltimore Museum of Art opened (incorporated 1914, first exhibition at Garrett mansion, 1923), Wyman Park, Baltimore.
  • Italian-born population of Baltimore peaked (9,022 of 804,874).
  • The Johns Hopkins University opened Walter Hines Page School of International Relations.
  • Baltimore Trust Company, largest Maryland bank, reorganized (formed Maryland National Bank, May 1933).
  • Feb - Citizens' Emergency Relief Committee organized, Baltimore.
  • March 3 - "Star-Spangled Banner" adopted as national anthem.
  • Dec - Mob lynched Negro in Salisbury.
  • "Bonus army" traveled through Maryland.
  • June - Albert C. Ritchie lost second bid for presidency.
  • Aug - Governor's Advisory Committee on Unemployment Relief, one of first in country, organized.
  • Peoples Unemployment League formed.
  • Storm cut inlet at Ocean City.
  • Billie Holliday auditioned with Benny Goodman orchestra.
  • Abel Wolman chaired new State Planning Commission.
  • Pratt Library, Baltimore, moved to new building.
  • July - State Congress of Farmers and Workers convened in Hagerstown.
  • Nov - Mob lynched black prisoner at Princess Anne.

1934 - Walters Art Gallery opened (built 1909, bequeathed by Henry Walters to city, 1931), Baltimore.

  • County welfare boards authorized.
  • Hall of Records opened, Annapolis.
  • In Murray v. Pearson et al., Baltimore City Court orders integration of University of Maryland Law School. Represented in case by Thurgood Marshall, Donald Gaines Murray registered September 1935.
  • Baltimore Chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, revived under leadership of Lillie Carroll Jackson.
  • Baltimore Transit Company formed from United Railways.
  • University of Maryland School of Law opened to blacks after NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall brought suit.
  • Nov - Pan American flew Martin M-130 flying boat, the China Clipper, on first scheduled air-mail flight to Orient.

1935-1939 - Harry W. Nice (Republican), governor.

  • Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO) strike led to riot, Cumberland.
  • Princess Anne Academy became part of University of Maryland system.
  • March - Floods at Cumberland, National Guard called in.
  • March - Floods at Cumberland, National Guard called in.
  • State income tax instituted.
  • Montgomery County equalized pay for black and white teachers.
  • Pan American Airways inaugurated Baltimore to Bermuda service.
  • St. John's College adopted "great books" curriculum.
  • June 1 - Greenbelt chartered, a New Deal model community.
  • Maryland courts ordered equal pay to black and white teachers in all counties.
  • Federal government began moving National Institutes of Health to site near Bethesda.
  • Martin Company developed Mariner, most serviceable flying boat ever built.
  • Silver Spring Shopping Center opened.
  • June - National Institutes of Health established in Bethesda.
  • Aug - Franklin D. Roosevelt announced plans to purge US Senator Millard E. Tydings.
  • Fairchild Company won competition for Army trainer with PT-19.
  • Ritchie Highway connected Baltimore and Annapolis.
  • Morgan College became part of State system.
  • Feb - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal opened as national park.

1939-1947 - Herbert R. O'Conor (Democrat), governor.

  • Aug - Maryland Council of Defense and Resources created.
  • Nov - Martin Marauder bomber underwent first tests.
  • Maryland State Guard authorized.
  • Board of Natural Resources created, Tidewater Fisheries Department remaining separate.
  • April - Citizens' Planning and Housing Association organized in Baltimore.
  • April-Sept - Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyard produced first Liberty Ship, Patrick Henry.

Dec. 7 - USS. Maryland among naval ships attacked at Pearl Harbor.

  • Andrews Field formed by federal government as major air base, Camp Springs, Prince George's County.
  • Commission to Study the Problems Affecting the Colored Population formed.
  • Feb. Patuxent Air Station, St. Mary's County.
  • April - Baltimore blacks protested police brutality and demanded school board representation.
  • Aug - Naval Medical Center dedicated, Bethesda.

Sept - 29th Division embarked for Britain.

  • "Work or fight" law enacted.
  • Explosion at Elkton ammunition factory killed fifteen workers.
  • Blue-baby operation developed at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, pioneering heart surgery era.
  • June - Troops of 29th Division landed on Omaha Beach.
  • New Baltimore municipal airport in Anne Arundel County recommended by Baltimore mayoral commission.

1945 - Slum clearance began in Baltimore by Redevelopment Commission.

Montgomery County Junior College opened, first in State.

Oct - Maryland Congress against Discrimination met in Baltimore.

  • New roads program to include bay bridge enacted.
  • Higher income tax legislated.
  • "Baltimore Plan" housing court, first in country, enforced building codes.
  • Commercial television stations broadcasted from Baltimore and Washington, DC.
  • Edmondson Village Shopping Center.

July 1. State sales tax instituted, first in state history.

1947-1951 - William Preston Lane (Democrat), governor.

  • Montgomery became first Maryland county to adopt charter form of government ("home rule").
  • Baltimore activists tested segregated tennis court policy, Druid Hill Park, Baltimore.
  • Constitutional amendments limited governor to two terms, mandated annual meetings of Legislature.
  • Department of Mental Hygiene established.
  • General Assembly spent heavily on public schools.
  • Ober loyalty law enacted.
  • Slot machines allowed by law in Southern Maryland.
  • Law suit opened University of Maryland School of Nursing to blacks.
  • Jan - Alger Hiss sentenced for perjury.
  • June - Friendship International Airport began service.
  • June 24 - Friendship International Airport (now BWI) began operation.
  • Commission on Interracial Problems and Relations formed.
  • University of Maryland graduate school integrated.
  • Baltimore inaugurated pilot program to upgrade blighted housing, opened golf courses to blacks.

1951-1959 - Theodore R. McKeldin (Republican), governor.

  • Historic Annapolis, Inc., organized.
  • Nation's first intensive care facility established at Johns Hopkins Hospital.
  • Polytechnic High School in Baltimore integrated.
  • July 30 - Chesapeake Bay Bridge opened.
  • St. Louis Browns moved to Baltimore, became American League Orioles.
  • University of Maryland integrated, first state university below Mason-Dixon Line to do so.
  • Public housing in Baltimore integrated.
  • First black elected to House of Delegates, from Baltimore.
  • Baltimore-Washington Expressway opened.
  • May - Thurgood Marshall and NAACP won Brown v. Board decision (May).
  • Sept - Baltimore City and Western Shore counties desegregated schools using freedom of choice.
  • Maryland National Guard units integrated.
  • Jan. Greater Baltimore Committee organized by business leaders.
  • Sept - Desegregation of public schools began.
  • Voting machines first used for elections throughout State.
  • Maryland Port Authority (now Maryland Port Administration) created.
  • Equal employment ordinance enacted, Baltimore.
  • Baltimore Regional Planning Council (now Baltimore Metropolitan Council) formed.
  • I-70 (north) connected Frederick and Baltimore.
  • Washington County educational television project began.
  • The Floating Opera, by John Barth, published.
  • James W. Rouse opened Mondawmin Mall, Baltimore.
  • Dec - Baltimore Urban Renewal and Housing Agency established, Baltimore urban renewal began.
  • Maryland dissolved 1785 compact with Virginia.
  • I-70 (south) connected Frederick and Washington, DC.
  • Cone Wing opened, Baltimore Museum of Art.
  • Nov. 30 - Baltimore Harbor Tunnel opened.
  • James W. Rouse built Harundale Mall, Anne Arundel County, first enclosed shopping center in State.
  • March - Greater Baltimore Committee unveiled plans for Charles Center.
  • Nov - Maryland Port Authority purchased Harbor Field with plans for Dundalk Marine Terminal.
  • Dec - Baltimore Colts, National Football League champions.
  • Baltimore Colts again National Football League champions.
  • I-83 linked Baltimore and Harrisburg.
  • May - Goddard Space Flight Center opened in Greenbelt.

1959-1967 - J. Millard Tawes (Democrat), governor.

  • Appalachian Regional Development Commission formed at Annapolis governors' meeting.
  • Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs created.
  • Department of Economic Development formed.
  • Political appointment of Baltimore magistrates ended.
  • Maryland Historical Trust authorized.
  • House of Delegates reapportioned.
  • Baltimore City and Montgomery County adopted open accommodations.
  • Voters approved Reed Commission fisheries agreement with Virginia.
  • Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson, published.
  • Jones Falls Expressway opened.
  • July - Baltimore Beltway (I-695) opened through Baltimore County, encircling Baltimore City.
  • Law enacted to phase out slot machines.
  • Open accommodations law enacted, limited to Baltimore City and twelve counties.
  • Advisory Council on Higher Education formed to oversee three-tiered college system.
  • I-95 connected Baltimore and Wilmington.
  • June 11 - Cambridge riots. National Guard remained through May 1965.
  • July - Black and white clergymen forced integration of Gwynn Oak amusement park.

Oct - Rouse announced plan to build Columbia in Howard County.

  • Maryland Committee for Fair Representation won court test regarding Maryland senate representation.
  • Governor's Commission on the Status of Women initiated.
  • Eastern Shore leaders established Wye Institute, Queen Anne's County.
  • Dundalk Marine Terminal began handling containerized cargoes.
  • April 7 - Public accommodations law enacted.
  • Aug. 16 - Capital Beltway (I-495) opened, encircling Washington, DC, by passing through Maryland's Prince George's and Montgomery counties, and Virginia.
  • Second bay bridge authorized.
  • Fair employment law enacted.
  • St. Mary's City Commission formed.
  • Oyster law permitted dredging under power, two days a week.
  • University of Maryland campus at Baltimore County opened.
  • Oct - Baltimore Orioles won World Series.
  • Voters largely rejected open housing referendum.
  • Morris A. Mechanic Theater opened, Baltimore.
  • Merriweather Post Pavilion opened, Columbia.
  • June 21 - Opening of Columbia, a planned community incorporating one-tenth of Howard County land area.
  • July 25 - Cambridge riots.
  • Sept. 12-1968, Jan. 10 - Constitutional Convention of 1967-1968 met at Annapolis.
  • Nov - Richard A. Henson inaugurated air service between Hagerstown and Baltimore.

1967-1969 - Spiro T. Agnew (Republican), governor.

  • Baltimore Urban Renewal and Housing Authority under Robert C. Embry, Jr., established residents' advisory board.
  • Maryland Magazine published.
  • Marshall W. Nirenberg, National Institutes of Health scientist, won Nobel Prize.
  • April - Riots in Baltimore and Washington, DC, followed assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King.
  • May 14 - Proposed State Constitution rejected by voters.

1969-1977 - Marvin Mandel (Democrat), governor.

  • Jan. Marvin Mandel elected governor by General Assembly to succeed Vice President-elect Sprio T. Agnew. Mandel adopted cabinet system of State government.
  • Maryland Commission on Negro History and Culture authorized.
  • Chesapeake Bay Interagency Planning Committee initiated.
  • Maryland Public Broadcasting aired.
  • Constellation moored permanently at Pier 1, Baltimore.
  • Baltimore Gas and Electric Company began construction of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Solomons.
  • Oct. 5 - Maryland Public Television first broadcasted from Owings Mills (channel 67).
  • New environmental legislation enacted.
  • Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies created by University of Maryland Board of Regents.
  • I-70 opened from Frederick to Hancock.
  • Spring - Student rebellion at University of Maryland College Park.
  • Sept - Baltimore staged first city fair.
  • Oct - Baltimore Orioles won World Series.
  • Nov. 3 - Voters approved independent General Assembly salary board.
  • Baltimore Colts won Super Bowl.
  • State adopted open housing legislation.
  • First high-rise condominium, Ocean City.
  • I-95 opened between Baltimore and Washington, DC.
  • State equal rights amendment enacted, approved women's equal rights amendment to US Constitution.
  • Nov. 7 - First general election in Maryland where lowering of voting age to 18 years of age or older applied.
  • Second parallel Chesapeake Bay Bridge opened.
  • State adopted lottery.
  • Friendship Airport reopened as Baltimore-Washington International (BWI) Airport.
  • Johns Hopkins physicians and scientists developed first heart pacemaker.
  • John Barth won National Book Award for Chimera.
  • Sept - Urban "homesteading" began in Baltimore. City sold abandoned houses for $1 each to encourage renovation.
  • Oct - Spiro T. Agnew resigned vice-presidency, pleaded no contest to felony charge.
  • Walters Art Gallery new wing opened, Baltimore.
  • Nov. 5 - Both houses of General Assembly elected, for first time, on basis of equal representation by population.
  • Center Stage reopened in converted St. Ignatius Church/Loyola College complex, Baltimore.
  • Mother Elizabeth Seton canonized by Pope Paul VI.
  • May - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant began operation in Calvert County.
  • Maryland Science Center opened in Baltimore.
  • Washington Metro, rapid transit system for national capital area, opened to link stations in Maryland, Washington, DC, and Virginia.
  • State civic and history groups marked national bicentennial.
  • Melbourne Smith (builder) and City of Baltimore launched replica clipper Pride of Baltimore, Inner Harbor, Baltimore.
  • World Trade Center opened, Baltimore.
  • Bishop John Nepomucene Neumann canonized by Pope Paul VI.
  • Aug. Marvin Mandel found guilty on mail fraud charges, appealed decision, succeeded by Lt. Governor Blair Lee III.

1977-79 - Blair Lee III (Democrat), acting governor.

  • Jim Richardson (builder) launched replica pinnace Maryland Dove, LeCompte Creek, Dorchester County.
  • Sept. 5-17. Camp David Accords negotiated at Camp David, Frederick County, between President Jimmy Carter, President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, and Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel. Signed in Washington, DC, March 26, 1979.
  • Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Smith of Johns Hopkins Hospital won Nobel Prizes for medicine.
  • Baltimore Convention Center.

1979-1987 - Harry Hughes (Democrat), governor.

  • Maryland and Virginia established Chesapeake Bay Commission to coordinate interstate legislative planning and programs to restore Bay resources.
  • July 2 - Harborplace, a 3-acre center of restaurants and shops, opened in Baltimore, signaling revitalization of City's Inner Harbor.

1981 - National Aquarium opened in Baltimore.

1983 - Dec. 9 - Chesapeake Bay Agreement to improve water quality and living resources of Bay signed by Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, District of Columbia, Chesapeake Bay Commission, and US Environmental Protection Agency.

1987 - Dec. 14 - Chesapeake Bay Agreement to restore and protect Bay signed by Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, District of Columbia, Chesapeake Bay Commission, and US Environmental Protection Agency.

1987-1995 - William Donald Schaefer (Democrat), governor.

  • April 6 - Orioles Park at Camden Yards, a stadium for the Baltimore Orioles baseball team, opened in downtown Baltimore.
  • May 18 - Central Corridor Light Rail Line opened through Baltimore.

1993 - Sept. 10 - Chesapeake Bay Partnership Agreement, to reduce pollution in Bay's tributaries by the year 2000, signed by Governor, Maryland's 23 counties, and Baltimore City.

  • Parris N. Glendening (Democrat), governor.
  • May 31 - Baltimore Metro extension opened from Charles Center to Johns Hopkins Hospital.
  • Sept. 6 - PSINet Stadium, home to the Baltimore Ravens National Football League team, opened at Camden Yards in Baltimore.
  • Oct. 15-19 - Wye Summit. Middle East Peace Talks between Israel and the Palistine Liberation Organization were held at Aspen Institute's Wye River Conference Centers, Queen Anne's County. The Wye River Memorandum, resulting from the talks, was signed in Washington, DC, Oct. 23, 1998.

21st Century Maryland History Timeline

2000 - June 28 - Chesapeake Bay Agreement, (Chesapeake 2000), established regional standards for Bay restoration, signed by Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, District of Columbia, Chesapeake Bay Commission, and US Environmental Protection Agency.

2004 - Maryland celebrated Flag Centennial

2006 - Maryland had lowest poverty rate in US

  • Nation's first Living Wage law enacted in Maryland
  • Middle East Peace Conference held at U. S. Naval Academy in Annapolis
  • Walking became official state exercise
  • Maryland first state to name offical state exercise

2010 - Baltimore Mayor Sheila Dixon resigned after conviction of embezzlement


Popular Culture 1974

  • Elvis Presley's Aloha From Hawaii television special is seen around the world by more than 1 billion viewers
  • The Sting
  • The Exorcist
  • Papillon
  • Herbie Rides Again
  • Blazing Saddles
  • The Great Gatsby
  • Serpico
  • Death Wish
  • The Godfather, Part II
  • Murder on the Orient Express

Popular Musicians and songs

  • ABBA
  • Beach Boys
  • David Bowie
  • Carpenters
  • Eric Clapton with " I Shot The Sheriff "
  • Alice Cooper
  • Deep Purple
  • Donovan
  • Ella Fitzgerald
  • Genesis
  • Grateful Dead
  • Joni Mitchell
  • Van Morrison
  • Dolly Parton
  • Queen
  • Minnie Riperton
  • Roxy Music
  • Sparks
  • Supertramp
  • Jethro Tull
  • The Velvet Underground
  • Barry White
  • Paul McCartney with " Band on the Run "
  • Stevie Wonder
  • Kung Fu
  • The Price Is Right
  • The Waltons
  • Kojak
  • Last of the Summer Wine
  • The Six Million Dollar Man

Vietnam, Watergate, Iran and the 1970s

The 1970s mean two things to many Americans: the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal. Both dominated the front pages of every newspaper in the country for a good part of the early '70s. American troops left Vietnam in 1973, but the last Americans there were airlifted off the roof of the American Embassy in April 1975 as Saigon fell to the North Vietnamese.

The Watergate scandal ended with the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in August 1974, leaving the nation stunned and cynical about government. But popular music played on everyone's radio, and the young felt liberated from social conventions of previous decades as the youth rebellion of the late 1960s bore fruit. The decade closed with 52 American hostages being held for 444 days in Iran, starting on Nov. 4, 1979, only to be released as Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as president on Jan. 20, 1981.

Watch Now: A Brief History of the 1970s

Print Collector/Getty Images

In May 1970, the Vietnam War was raging on, and President Richard Nixon invaded Cambodia. On May 4, 1970, students at Kent State University in Ohio staged protests that included setting fire to the ROTC building. The Ohio National Guard was called in, and the guardsmen fired on the student protesters, killing four and injuring nine.

In sad news for many, The Beatles announced they were breaking up. As a sign of things to come, computer floppy disks made their first appearance.

The Aswan High Dam on the Nile, under construction throughout the 1960s, opened in Egypt.

In 1971, a relatively quiet year, London Bridge was brought to the U.S. and reassembled in Lake Havasu City, Arizona, and VCRs, those magical electronic devices that allowed you to watch movies at home anytime you like or record TV shows, were introduced.

Corbis via Getty Images/Getty Images

In 1972, major news was made at the Olympic Games in Munich: Terrorists killed two Israelis and took nine hostages, a firefight ensued, and all nine Israelis were killed along with five of the terrorists. At the same Olympic Games, Mark Spitz won seven gold medals in swimming, a world record at that time.

The Watergate scandal began with the break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate complex in June 1972.

The good news: "M*A*S*H" premiered on television, and pocket calculators became a reality, making struggles with calculation a thing of the past.

Bettmann Archive/Getty Images

In 1973, the Supreme Court made abortion legal in the United States with its landmark Roe v. Wade decision. Skylab, America's first space station, was launched the U.S. pulled its last troops out of Vietnam, and Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned under a cloud of scandal.​

The Sears Tower was completed in Chicago and became the tallest building in the world it kept that title for nearly 25 years. Now called the Willis Tower, it is the second-tallest building in the United States.

Bettmann Archive/Getty Images

In 1974, heiress Patty Hearst was kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army, who demanded a ransom in the form of a food giveaway by her father, newspaper publisher Randolph Hearst. The ransom was paid, but Hearst was not freed. In tantalizing developments, she ultimately joined her captors and assisted in robberies and professed to have joined the group. She was later captured, tried and convicted. She served 21 months of a seven-year sentence, which was commuted by President Jimmy Carter. She was pardoned by President Bill Clinton in 2001.

In August 1974, the Watergate scandal reached its climax with the resignation of President Richard Nixon in the wake of impeachment in the House of Representatives he resigned to avoid conviction by the Senate.

Other events in that year include the deposing of Ethiopian Emperor Halie Selassie, the defection of Mikhail Baryshnikov to the U.S. from Russia, and the killing spree of serial killer Ted Bundy.

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In April 1975, Saigon fell to the North Vietnamese, ending years of American presence in South Vietnam. There was ​a civil war in Lebanon, the Helsinki Accords were signed, and Pol Pot became the Communist dictator of Cambodia.

There were two assassination attempts against President Gerald R. Ford, and former Teamsters Union leader Jimmy Hoffa went missing and has never been found.

The good news: Arthur Ashe became the first African-American man to win Wimbledon, Microsoft was founded, and "Saturday Night Live" premiered.

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In 1976, the serial killer David Berkowitz, aka Son of Sam, terrorized New York City in a killing spree that would ultimately claim six lives. The Tangshan earthquake killed more than 240,000 in China, and the first ebola virus outbreaks hit Sudan and Zaire.

North and South Vietnam reunited as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Apple Computers was founded, and "The Muppet Show" premiered on TV and made everyone laugh out loud.

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Elvis Presley was found dead in his home in Memphis in what was possibly the most shocking news of 1977.

The Trans-Alaska Pipeline was finished, the landmark miniseries "Roots" riveted the nation for eight hours over one week, and the seminal movie "Star Wars" premiered.

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In 1978, the first test-tube baby was born, John Paul II became the Pope of the Roman Catholic Chuch, and the Jonestown massacre stunned just about everyone.

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The biggest story of 1979 happened late in the year: In November, 52 American diplomats and citizens were taken hostage in Tehran, Iran, and were held for 444 days, until the inauguration of President Ronald Reagan on Jan. 20, 1981.

There was a major nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, Margaret Thatcher became the first female prime minister of Britain, and Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Sony introduced the Walkman, allowing everyone to take their favorite music everywhere.


Watch the video: 17η Νοέμβρη 1973 - Οι τελευταίες ώρες και η εισβολή του τάνκ (May 2022).