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Rosetta Stone is a block of black granite (often misidentified as "basalt"), measuring 118 cm high, 77 cm wide and 30 thick.
She was discovered in 1799 on a military expedition by then General Napoleon - later she was captured by the English.
The stone block has strange minted glyphs separated into three distinct parts. Each part presents a kind of writing that was nothing like the other two. These three forms of writing, it turned out, were texts in the languages written in hieroglyphics, Egyptian demotic, and Greek.
The Rosetta Stone is a fragment of a stele, Stone block with inscriptions from government or religious records.
Its translation still causes conflicts between nations, and to this day scholars debate who should take credit for cracking the hieroglyphic code. Even the current location of the stone is a matter of debate. The object has always been considered of great historical and political importance.
The realization of the translation in 1822 belongs to the French student Jean-François Champollion, who in this way began the science of studying Egyptian subjects, Egyptology.