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- The sharing of the lands of Africa and Asia in the second half of the nineteenth century generated much disagreement between European nations.
While England and France were left with large territories with many resources to explore, Germany and Italy had to settle for few low value territories. This Italian-German discontent remained until the early twentieth century and was one of the reasons for the war, as these two nations wanted more territory to exploit and increase their resources.
- In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, European nations began to invest heavily in the manufacture of weapons. Rising tensions created insecurity, thus increasing military investment in the face of the possibility of armed conflict in the region;
- Economic competition between European countries has intensified the dispute for consumer markets and raw materials. Often economically unfair actions were taken by certain countries or companies (with government support);
- The question of nationalisms was also present in pre-war Europe. In addition to rivalries (eg Germany and England), there was Pan-Germanism and Pan-Slavism. In the first case it was the German ideal of forming a great empire, uniting the Germanic countries. Pan-Slavism, on the other hand, was a strong sentiment in Russia that also involved other countries of Slavic origin.